Group, the structure and function of the muscles of the back and neck
A Properly developed back muscles allow good posture and a confident gait of any person. Moreover, straightened his shoulders and straight posture allow the body to consume more oxygen, therefore at the end of the day fatigue will be significantly lower than those who allow the back to slouch. We offer you a closer look at the structure and location of the group of muscles of the back, and even then, what functions endowed with the main ones.
muscle Group of back
It is Obvious that the muscles of the back and neck occupy a large area on the human body, starting from the field at the top of the neck and finishing with lumbar Department of the back. The main support for the spinal muscles is the spine, and one of the main functions of the muscular system is to hold your spine in a straight position, in which the lungs receives maximum oxygen.
Typically, major muscle groups can be divided into deep muscles and superficial muscles of the lower back.
deep back muscles "are responsible" for the stability of the spinal column, they are also known under the name of transversospinales muscles. In this group of muscles there are three layers, of which the deepest are considered to be muscles, rotator cuff, then go multifidus and semispinalis muscles closest to the surface in this group. The main function of this group is to ensure precise movements of each of the vertebrae, thus ensuring the stability of the entire back.
Another group of muscles that attaches exclusively to the spine – extensor muscles of the spine. In this group there are three categories of muscles, the names of which are as follows: iliac rib, longissimus and spinalis. As the name implies, these muscles help the spine to make movements forward and backwards, i.e. The back of them has the ability to bend and straighten.
In addition, in the upper back are the trapezius, rhomboids and levator scapulae muscles.
The trapezius muscle, often referred to simply as "trapeze", are located in the back of the neck and look like a triangle, the base facing the vertebral column, and the top is toward the scapula. These two triangles, located on both sides of the spine, and visually they form a geometrical figure on which the name of this muscle group.
The Function of this muscle group is to control the movement of the blades, they are partially involved in the movement of the neck, support head, etc.
This large group of back muscles – superficial muscles. It's quite a large group that includes many different muscles situated in the lower back. The most famous of them is called latissimus. This muscle is the largest in this region and it is located in the area from the humerus to the iliac area, thus crossing the plane of the back. A portion of it is covered by the trapezius muscle. Widest makes possible the movement of the shoulder whereby the hand is drawn back to the spine. In addition, it allows you to tighten the torso to the hand that with the proper development of this muscle enables the movement of the body using the arms. In this way the movement often use primates, but people are still able to do that.
For side bend meets the square muscle of the loin. with in addition, because of the peculiarities of its structure, it helps to extend the lumbar spine.
The Location of the rhomboid muscles belong to the upper region of the back, is this directly under the trapezius muscle attached to the medial scapular edge. Its function is especially noticeable when a man takes her back down or Vice versa, and compresses them. The rest of the rhomboid muscle fixes the medial border of the scapula, pressing it to the sternum.
You Should specifically say about another muscle, which is called large round, or as it is called – small wings. This name is due to its location and flat elongated shape. This muscle is located under the widest and works in close conjunction with it. However, the big round muscle is responsible for several functions: pulling the arms down and backward, by the rotation of the arm in a direction inward and bringing the hands to the body.
we can't avoid mentioning the weak point of the muscle corset back, which, if you do not pay enough attention to him, under the influence of severe stress can lead to lumbar hernia. This so-called the lumbar triangle, formed with the participation of the obliques. Although not relevant to the back muscles, they play an important role in the formation and strengthening of the muscle corset that supports the spine.
Lumbar triangle is limited behind by the broadest muscle of a back, front external oblique muscle of the abdomen, from below the iliac crest.
Quite often, due to asymmetrical muscle development disorders occur in the posture, which subsequently leads to diseases of the spine or to disease of internal organs. To achieve symmetry in the structure of muscle groups it is possible with the help of various physical exercises, exercise or fitness equipment.
Methods of training
You Can strengthen your back muscles at home without visiting the gym. But before you start doing exercises before you workout a bit to stretch the spine in order to avoid such troubles, pinched nerves, etc.
So, if you are doing exercises in the morning, after waking up should be, turned over on his stomach, pulled back, resting his hands on the bed. Repeat this stretching several times.
Another exercise can help relieve accumulated tension in the spinal muscles. You need to lie on your back, bend your knees and try to reach it. Three or four attempts will help to relieve your back and feel considerable relief.
No less useful even just to hang at least a few minutes a day. This will help to align the vertebrae in a vertical plane and, again, to remove unnecessary tension from the back.
One of the most common diseases today is scoliosis.
Exercises for muscle corset
Violation of posture affects not only students but also people whose work is connected with constant sitting in one place. To keep the back straight and the spine is healthy, you should perform exercises to maintain the muscles of the back:
- starting position: stand up straight, put your feet shoulder-width apart. Slowly and with maximum amplitude of tilt your body back and forth, trying to feel how the spine moves.
- starting position – same as in the previous exercise. The hands should be raised above the head, bringing them to the castle. The same should be done slowly tilts to the side, trying to keep back straight. Repeat 5-7 times in each direction.
- starting position: on the floor, on his knees, hands rested palms on the floor shoulder width apart. Should you bend the spine upwards, alternating with the troughs it down, as if you imitate the cat. Repeat the exercise 10 times.
For those who want to work seriously on the condition of the back, there are several options for strength exercises to strengthen the spine:
- starting position: lying on his stomach on the floor, feet together, left hand on the back of the head, the right stretched out to the side. The back of his head to reach up, lifting above the floor of the upper part of the body. Feet must remain on the floor. To do 20 approaches.
- starting position as before, only both hands are placed palms on the back of his head. Lift the casing up, without lifting the feet off the floor. To make 10 to 20 approaches.
- starting position: on all fours. Smooth motion bring your right knee to the left elbow, rounding your back as you exhale. After pulling an arm and a leg and bend on the inhale. It is advisable to do all the movements smoothly, to maintain balance using the back muscles. The arm and leg required to constantly rotate. To do 7-10 repetitions of this exercise.
- starting position: face down, lying on the couch so that her legs and pelvis hanging down, and the couch was only upper body. Hold onto the side of the couch, slowly raise the legs together as long as they do not form one line with the torso. Keep your feet on weight for a few seconds, then gently push them down. This exercise is to repeat seven to ten times. It helps to train the deep muscles of the back.
At the end of the workout don't forget to relax your back, it's easy to do with the help of fitball, if to lie on his back and ride a little back and forth.
To keep the tone of the muscular system of the back by observing a few simple rules:
- don't neglect the morning exercises, which includes exercises to maintain muscle tone in the back;
- to monitor your posture, not allowing the muscles to relax too;
- sleep at night on a flat surface, not too soft, to avoid curvature of the spine.
In addition, we should not forget about proper relaxation of the back muscles, to prevent excessive overvoltage. So, performing exercises on the burden of the back muscles, they should be alternated with exercises aimed at relaxation of the same muscles. Would be particularly useful from time to time to afford a relaxing massage.
specifically mention water treatments, because swimming is considered one of the best ways to keep your back muscles in good shape, without any risk of overstraining them. Another useful to take coniferous baths for deeper relaxation of the muscles of the back. Protect your back muscles from hypothermia, to avoid such unpleasant phenomena as myositis.