What are the kinds, types and forms of the thorax
The Human body is surprising in its diversity. The complexity of the structure of the human body is a direct merit of evolution, which allowed a living being to go from unicellular organism to multi-function smart essence – Homo sapiens.
Erroneous is the assertion that the norm is only one. Because most of the characteristics of our body variable in shape, volume, etc. One person may differ from another growth, the volume of the thoracic cavity, gait, and this does not mean that one of them has something wrong. That is why in the study of the human body should pay attention to the shape of the thorax in health and disease.
learn about the types of the chest are widely used in medical practice. Experienced doctors, only after seeing the appearance and characteristics of examining the chest, can make the preliminary diagnosis, which significantly accelerates the treatment or correction. Pathological variants are a symptom, not the cause of the disease. Often pathological deformation can be corrected, but some species are not amenable to correction.
Classification of normal forms
In normal breast cell has several forms that differ from one another by some anatomic features.
Normosthenic (conical) chest has the shape of a cone. Transverse diameter of asthenic forms more than the anterior-posterior. Intercostal spaces, scapula, supraclavicular and infraclavicular fossa are almost invisible. Shoulder girdle and muscle composition of the well fortified and relatively stronger than other forms. The angle between the costal arcs is about 90 degrees. Epigastric to measure the angle by placing thumbs at xiphoid process, and palms along the costal arches. Occurs most often in people of average height.
Hypersthenic TOOOypical for chunky people. In appearance the rib cage resembles a cylinder, whose dimensions are practically the same in the transverse and anteroposterior diameters. Near-horizontal edges characterizes fuzzy intercostal spaces above and subclavian fossa. Stupid epigastric corner, has a well-developed musculature. This type is most common in people of small stature.
Asthenic type Is much longer than the other variants of the norm. The angle between the edges sharp, while the edges are more vertical. People with asthenic type can be clearly distinguished intercostal spaces, supraclavicular and infraclavicular fossa, of the scapula. Muscle mass, usually poorly developed. The shoulder belt is vulnerable to bruises, sprains and fractures. Asthenic type is most often seen in people with high growth.
In case of diseases of lungs and pleura, the presence of harmful factors of the work, prolonged forced position, and many other reasons the shape of the chest may vary.
Paralysis Occurs in patients with chronic diseases of the lung and pleura. The pathogenesis of this change is based on reducing the volume of lung tissue or changes of its anatomical and physiological features (fibrosis, calcification). Appearance of patients with paralytic type something similar to the astenikiv. Most often the shape of the torso is asymmetrical, with strong contours and intervals.
Emphysematous form occurs, as stated in the title, in people with emphysema. Increased airiness of the lungs over time changes the shape of the chest wall of the person. In most cases it resembles a hypersthenic, but with a more pronounced circle. The cough symptom of emphysema only aggravates the process, making the upper part of the cells are more voluminous.
Rachitic type (chicken Breasts) Is characterized by a more acute angle between the ribs and breastbone. The sternum, in turn, sticks out forward, resembling the keel of a bird. Common in people who have had rickets in childhood.
Funnel type (shoemaker chest) Is characterized by the indentation of the xiphoid process of the sternum and inside. This creates a visible defect. In most cases, this form is congenital. Studies have shown that swimming lessons help gradually reduce the deformity. Otherwise, the defect can be remedied by surgical intervention.
Navicular Occurs in people with syringomyelia. Characterized by recesses in the body of the sternum, which is visible.
Gipokaliemicakie Breasts Is the result of inflammation in the bony part of the spine.