The symptoms of bacterial meningitis, its treatment and the possible consequences
Bacterial meningitis is a severe and dangerous disease that affects both adults and children. The bacteria penetrate through the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx. They can occur during infectious diseases, if a man had bronchitis. The second way of infection is through the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in stopped its normal operation. If the pathogen gets into the shell of the brain, it often leads to death.
Bacterial meningitis – the inflammation of the membranes of the brain or spinal cord, which starts from the ingress to the human body serious bacterial infection.
Main causes of disease
The Causative agent of this disease in infants are Streptococcus of group b and D.
The Cases are sporadic, but a certain danger still exists for everyone. Bacterial meningitis in 80% of cases develops because of aggressive bacterial species plan of N. Meningitidis, S. Pneumoniae and H. Influenzae.
Bacterial meningitis can be caused by such bacteria as Listeria, spirochetes, and Enterobacteriaceae.
Around the world were repeatedly documented cases of meningitis children caused by infectious diseases.
Very rarely meningitis develops as a result of interaction of several types of bacteria. This ailment is more susceptible adults. Bacterial meningitis such suffers only 1% of the population.
People who are at risk:
- abusing alcohol
- have undergone unsuccessful surgery, in which bacteria get into the body;
- received a traumatic brain injury;
- underwent operative interventions, which are conducted on the abdominal cavity.
The Incubation period lasts 2-12 days. This may be acute nezamenimyj, which will be accompanied by elevated body temperature (above 38°). If bacteria are already in the blood, the person's condition deteriorates, you may experience fever . In this case, the temperature can increase to 40°. Symptoms can manifest as nausea, vomiting, severe headache.
This period is characterized by the symptoms:
- weakness of the muscles of the neck;
- the symptoms and kerniga Brudzinskogo;
- in infants symptoms can result in swelling and inflammation of the fontanelles in the occipital region of the skull.
Often show signs of nerve endings in the brain. In rare cases, observed the development of hemorrhagic exanthema on the hands, feet, torso and face. At first it will be similar to petechiae, but gradually the spots will take the form of stars of irregular shape. The skin formed on the wound, from which there will be bleeding.
If the disease progresses for a long period of time, then the person may fall into a lump state. He start severe seizures and a severe shortness of breath. If all these symptoms often occur clouding of consciousness, hallucinations.
In the later stages of bacterial meningitis of the above symptoms stop, but begins to develop swelling of the lungs and hemiparesis. Man always want to sleep. The muscles of the patient is very weakened, so it practically does not move, and each movement is accompanied by severe pain.
There Are cases where the symptoms did not manifest itself. For example, in neonates and infants the symptoms are practically absent. But the changes may appear in the child's behavior: there is increased irritability, frequent occurrence of moods and irritability. There have been frequent fluctuations of temperature of the body. For adults typical symptoms that resemble diabetes mellitus. Man always want to sleep, it becomes strongly inhibited, the body temperature is maintained at the desired level.
The Most common routes of transmission of the disease:
- during childbirth from mother to child;
- oral-fecal method transmission
- by air
- by kissing, sexual contact with an infected person.
To protect yourself from being infected with bacterial meningitis, it is necessary to make the vaccine, but only if you are in the contaminated area.
In other cases you just need to follow the rules of personal hygiene.
bacterial meningitis Treatment
Treatmentmeningitis has complex character and is in the hospital. For suspected acute bacterial meningitis treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids begin immediately after sampling of blood and CSF for culture.
The Choice of antibiotic depends on the type of pathogen and the age of the patient. Cephalosporins of the 3rd generation (Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime) versatile-effective against most pathogens. Instead of cephalosporins of the 3rd generation children can be prescribed cefepime. This anti-bacterial agent shown and meningitis Pseudomonas etiology. Ampicillin has retained effectiveness against Listeria monocytogenes. After clarification of the etiology of the disease according to the results of bacteriological examination of the correct antibiotic therapy.
Some patients with acute bacterial meningitis dexamethasone administered. Among absolute indications should be allocated to acute adrenal insufficiency, which may develop during an infectious-toxic shock.
Relative indications: the threat of severe condition, the presence of intolerance of a number of medications (e.g., antibiotics). Relative indications dictated by the desire of the physician to arrest the infection process and to accelerate the cure of the disease.
Dexamethasone reduces mortality, promotes rapid reduction of fever, relieves brain swelling and improves neurological prognosis, including reducing the number of cases of hearing loss. The effect of dexamethasone is due to the inhibition induced by the decay products of bacteria released from macrophages, astrocytes and other cells of biologically active substances that increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, causing meningeal inflammation, increase of intracranial pressure and impair cerebral blood flow.
Dexamethasone causes a decrease in permeability of the blood-brain barrier, however it remains at a level sufficient for the passage of the antibiotics used in meningitis. As a result, all the nerve endings that are located in the brain, is able to perform its functions over a long period of time. Dexamethasone is injected into a vein through a drip method.
bacterial meningitis is quite often marked by increased intracranial pressure, which also must be addressed. Most often recommend the following:
- Lie on the pillow to raise or lower the tilt of the head was not less than 30°.
- the Use of drugs, such as mannitol or phenobarbital.
The Consequences of meningitis can be varied, but they all will wear heavy in nature. However, if the disease is timely detect and begin treatment, negative outcomes can be avoided. Advanced cases of the disease can lead to deafness and vision loss. Bacterial meningitis in children is very hazardous: may occur deviations in mental and physical development. There are cases of deaths.
It Should be noted the fact that when the decision was made to carry out regular vaccination against the viruses, the number of cases of disease among the population decreased by almost 90%.
In Addition to vaccinations, you must adhere to several important rules.
- Exclude communication with meningitis infected people.
- After every visit to the toilet to wash hands with soap and water.