Diagnosis, prevention, therapeutic exercises for posture disorders in children
The Violation of posture in children is noticeable to the naked eye is not only a qualified orthopedist-the traumatologist, but also parents. A hunched back, shoulder girdle asymmetry, protrusion of the belly – classical manifestations of the disease. Approximately 30% of cases the offset of the vertical axis of the body due to the presence of scoliosis (lateral deviation of the spinal column).
Principles for evaluating the location of the vertebral axis
Posture in children is up to 24 years in connection with constant growth of the body. Against this background, any impact can cause curvature of the spine in the horizontal and frontal planes, therefore, it is important to annually check for curvature of the vertical axis.
signs of a correct posture:
- Vertical position of the body;
- Expanded chest;
- Allotted shoulders
- Close arrangement of the blades;
- a Tight stomach.
Any deviation from the above features indicates the presence of pathology.
Types of incorrect posture in the sagittal plane:
- Slouch – flattening of lumbar lordosis and increased kyphosis of the chest;
- Flat back – smoothing of all curves of spinal column;
- - Concave back is flattening of the thoracic kyphosis with normal lumbar lordosis;
- Round spin – increase of the thoracic kyphosis throughout thoracic;
- Krugovorota spin – increase lordosis in the lower back and kyphosis in the chest.
In the frontal plane appears scoliotic arc. It is not a disease unlike scoliosis (lateral curvature of the spine axis), as a result of increased tone of skeletal muscles in one half of the body.
There are 3 degrees of spinal curvature in children:
1 degree – the child may, if desired, to take a normal position, but in a free pose traced the curvature of the vertebral axis;
2 the degree of deformation is eliminated if the vis on the bar or the wall bars, and extension of the trunk.
3 degree of curvature remains at straightening and vis child on a gymnastic bar.
Scoliosis – the cause of disability in children
Posture in children with the displacement of the axis of the spine in the lateral plane is called scoliotic arc. Without performing radiography of the vertebral column in frontal and lateral projections it is difficult to distinguish from true scoliosis. However, the curvature of the spine in the frontal plane in 3 and 4 leads to the degree of disability of children.
The Degree of scoliosis are:
- At the initial stage of the external curvature of the back side is difficult to differentiate between scoliosis and scoliotic arc. The only sign on the radiograph, allowing it to do, is rotation of the vertebrae around the axis (torsion) when there is a true scoliosis. The amount of curvature does not exceed 30%.
- the Curvature of 31-60% is clearly apparent by visual inspection of the back of the child and appears on 2 stages of scoliosis;
- deformation of the spine up to 90% is characterized by the shape change of the vertebrae (they become wedge-shaped) and shows 3 stages of disease;
- When curvature more than 90% of the spinal column (4 degree) in the lateral plane appears pronounced curvature of the vertical axis of the body with a disproportionate displacement of anatomical structures and internal organs.
Scoliosis is more common for girls aged 12 to 14 years rapid growth and sexual maturation. In this case the changes are related to the fact that the musculo-ligamentous apparatus does not have time to adapt to the rapid growth of the bone structure.
Violated posture in children may be associated with vertebral hump. When you browse back a child with this pathology clearly visible large protrusion in the thoracic region. Children with spinal hump can't lean on the back of a chair when sitting and always complain of pain in the thoracic spine.
Treatment of certain asymmetry of the back in the home
Correct posture in children should be formed from a very young age. How to prevent curvature of the spine in infants:
- Infants may be placed on a soft feather bed and put pillows on;
- When the child turns 3 years, he should pass on to the stomach;
- should Not attempt to teach your baby to walk;
- you can't carry children on one hand all the time;
- If you walk with your child is better not to take him by the hand, and a band filtered through the armpit;
- 2-3 years of age, teach children to sit correctly on the chair;
- Try to teach them to sleep on hard bed earlyage.
Parents should remember that all their previous efforts on the formation of correct posture in children may be thwarted by improper fit behind a school Desk or carrying a heavy backpack on one shoulder.
principles of Medical correction of the spine the child
Poor posture in children requires putting them on a clinical account. With orthopaedic trauma will determine the optimum correction methods:
- With progressive scoliosis of 3-4 degrees, which occurs in about 0.6-0.7% percent of children required hospital treatment: traction, underwater massage, special exercises;
- is Not degenerative scoliosis are treated in the outpatient setting before the end of the growth process of children;
- When scoliosis of 1 degree correction of pathology is performed corrective exercises in the physical therapy group;
- the offset of the axis of the spine in the lateral plane 2-3 degrees requires a careful approach to treatment. These children are assigned to sessions of physical therapy in medical school or medical and sports clinic.
When stooping, round back and flat to focus the children on regular exercise (at least 3 times a week).
Before performing therapeutic exercises to address the posture the correct posture. Set baby next to the wall and put it on the head book. You must hold it for a long time. With this training fixed unconsciously correct posture.
To prevent the curvature of the back should pay attention to the following features:
- to Prevent functional shortening of the limb will help correct selection of shoes. In congenital flat feet, you must wear special shoes;
- To sleep a child needs hard to buy mattress
- Strict mode
- to eliminate some bad habits: wearing a backpack, incorrect position of the trunk behind a school Desk, throwing one leg to the other.
Draw the attention of parents that are a frequent cause of incorrect posture in children is flat feet. Unfortunately, improper formation of the arch of the baby is not alarming parents. However, when walking in a child with flat feet the weight on the joints and spine, broken last depreciation function.
Because of flat foot in children first is not sick, the problem does not cause discomfort. Pain will occur only when the bones into fine calcium salts, and in the human body is not strong enough to ensure the function of locomotion.
Over time following the flatfoot occur varicose veins of the lower extremities due to the load on the circulatory system of the legs.
Due to the rapid development of complications, the doctors are trying to treat incorrect posture immediately upon detection. The effectiveness of therapy depends on the interest of the patient of the correctness, regularity and duration of implementation of the recommendations of the doctor.
Strengthening the muscular system
Exercises for posture help to strengthen the muscles of the back, to improve the dynamic properties of skeletal muscles and prevent further dislocation of the spine.
A Course of physiotherapy should be held regularly and for a long time. Systematic exercise should not be less than 3 times a week.
Gymnastics to align the spins, depending on the mechanism of action are classified into 2 types:
Static exercises are designed to strengthen the "slow" muscle groups. These fibers are often in a tonic condition and very slowly relax. When the curvature of the axis of the spine "slow" muscles on one side of the trunk are in spasm,. To prevent static exercises are assigned.
The dynamic Training of skeletal muscles aimed at improving its elasticity. In this case strengthened the "fast" muscle fibers. They are able to quickly contract and relax. Are activated during active physical movements.
A Gymnastic exercise on the specifics of the impact on the muscles can be divided into 3 types:
Symmetrical symmetrical exercises affect muscle groups on both sides of the body. Asymmetrical – is aimed at strengthening individual muscle fibers. Combination options include both of the above groups.
here is a sample list of exercises which are used to correct spinal deformity in children:
- Make the rise of direct legs in a standing position. At the same time on each account try to get the palm of the hand toe
- If the daily do the exercise "Bicycle", you can quickly strengthen your abs. It involves the simulation of riding a bike, sitting on a chair;
- Raise feet to the height of 40 cm above the floor and change the elevation of the lower extremities constantly. In this case, one foot needs to move up and the other down;
- stretch your legs straight and place your hands at your sides. In this position, lift your legs and lock them for 30 seconds at an angle of 30degrees;
- If the previous exercise is easy to perform, you can apply advanced option: lift your legs at an angle of 45 degrees;
- Lie on your back and do "scissors" about 30 times (alternately bring one leg behind the other in the raised position);
- Lying down, raise and lower the legs over head 10-15 times;
- Sitting on a chair, secure the legs under the base (it can be chair). Hands behind your head. Razgaitis and slowly go down;
- Perform hovering on the crossbar. Raise your legs straight up to a right angle. The number of repetitions 10-15 for 10 seconds;
- Raise your knees to the stomach in the supine position. The number of repetitions – for being.
The Above exercises for children to perform and parents. They are convenient because they do not require lengthy repetition and strengthen the muscles of the back.
In conclusion, I would like to remind you that there are no such medicines that would make muscles strong and the ligaments more elastic. Only physiotherapy is able to lead to the Royal carriage.