How to create the correct posture in children of preschool age
Posture in children of preschool age depends not only on the influence of pathological factors on the spinal column, but also on anthropometric measures of the child. Body length, head height, size of feet – it is important for the formation of flat spins in children. On the basis of these indicators, some scientists recommend to form structural segments, supporting the back in the correct position.
How to evaluate posture in preschool children
In the process of growth of the child the body proportions change:
- newborn body and head are minimum dimensions;
- Active growth of the body length starting from 7 years.
To evaluate the correct posture in children of preschool age it is necessary to estimate a proportional relationship between these indices. To do this, divide the whole length of the body on the upper and lower half. To rate will be 2 numbers:
- the Intensity of annual growth;
- the growth in the sitting position, to a rise in a standing position.
In preschool children increase the length of the body is mostly due to the growth of the extremities, spine, and slight increase of the head. Annual dynamics of the process reflected in the diagram:
It shows that the average body growth of a child in year 4-5 cm (growth plateau), but there are 2 jump (growth spurt): 4-5 and 12-15 years.
First pull happens at nursery age and are very important for the proper laying of further forming the axis of the spine. The chart shows that after this period, there is a long growth plateau up to 12-13 years.
body height stop to 16-19 years, when completed the ossification of the vertebral column (the replacement of cartilage on the bone of the vertebrae).
Average annual growth of the spine in preschool children in the lumbar spine not greater than 0.8 cm per year, rib is 1.4 cm and 2.2 cm in the cervical it is Obvious that up to five years more rapid growth of the upper part of the chest. These anatomical features are important in the assessment of posture in children of preschool age to prevent gross deformation of the spinal column.
To simplify the analysis of anthropometric indicators of preschool children scientists have introduced the index of the ratio of growth at different ages to a projected increase (see table).
Despite some generality of the approaches to the formation of correct posture in preschool children in the growth process of each individual appear some features of anatomical structures. Therefore, if you notice any changes in the discrepancy of growth of the spine age estimate vertebral column on radiographs.
The Formation of correct posture in preschool age radiographically accompanied by an increase in drive and the sharpening of vertebral bodies. The average increase in height of the vertebrae in the thoracic region is 1-2 mm per year, it is difficult to track in the picture. About the beginning of a pathological curvature of the spinal column axis shows the uneven growth of the intervertebral discs and bodies at different levels.
Another parameter for evaluating the vertical axis of the trunk in children of preschool age is disc-vertebral ratio. It reflects the ratio of height of the vertebral body to the disc height in the evaluation segment. Normal its value is equal to 4 or 5 to 1. This ratio decreases in all pathological changes of the spine.
The Formation of correct posture in preschool children can also be assessed by the timeliness of the appearance of ossification points (the foci of the deposition of calcium salts) in the typical areas of growth. They are very well traced when performing magnetic resonance imaging or radiography of the spine in frontal and lateral projections (harmful method).
The Most common way to detect changes in the spinal column of a preschooler is Apothecary test (Risser). It is estimated the prevalence of areas of calcification apophysis (edge portion) of the vertebra (see figure).
The Method allows early to determine the correct or pathological posture in preschool children, since the formation of the vertebrae has a direct impact on maintaining the vertical axis of the body.
To test Riser should roughly divide the iliac crest into 4 parts. Features of assessment posture in preschool children by epifizarnah test:
- First point of ossification arise in the anterior ridge;
- Their absence is regarded as an adverse sign (points of ossification in the spine appear according to age).
In the preschool years the first zone of ossification in the region of the anterior part of the crest should appear at the age of 4,5-5 years. The remaining areas occur later (10-11 years old).
Any deformation of the back occur in small children
In preschool children most often arises the deviation of the spine to the sides. Because the physiological lordosis and kyphosis they are not expressed, correct posture is maintained during this age period the muscle corset back. The spine up to 7 years is soft and plastic, so easily shifted.
What types of scoliosis appear in children up to 7 years:
- Rotation – displacement of the spinal column in the horizontal plane;
- Torsion – rotation of the vertebrae around the axis;
- Flat back – a flat, vertical plane;
- Round spin – excessive bowing of the spine;
- Slouch – a pronounced bulge in the thoracic region.
Appears in preschool children and the displacement of the axis of the spinal column to one side – scoliosis. It is 2 types:
- Scoliosis at a younger age (up to 2 years of life) occurs more frequently in boys and is characterized by left-lateral offset of the axis of the vertebral column;
- Juvenile scoliosis can be traced on 3-4 year of a child's life. More typical for girls and has a progressive course.
The Formation of correct posture in children of preschool age on anatomical and functional characteristics different from counterparts in adults. Children's spine is more mobile, leaving a mark on the clinical features of this disease.