Features, types, symptoms kyphotic posture
Kyphotic posture implies the convexity posteriorly in the sagittal plane. More simple terms it's called "round back", which reflects the appearance of the back of the patient by visual inspection.
The Causes of the disease are considered to be traumatic injuries or various diseases of the spine, leading to deformation of the structure of the vertebrae (tuberculosis, osteoarthritis, spondylitis).
Anatomical features of kyphotic posture
Kyphotic posture (Hyper-kyphosis) is characterized by increased the physiological curvature of the thoracic spine. Normally, the angle of curvature measured by the Cobb method on lateral radiographs, does not exceed 40 degrees. When he hyperkyphosis more of this index.
Simultaneously with the deformation of the thoracic pathology observed flattening of the cervical and lumbar lordosis (concavity inwards). Thus, when the external study of the human spine with the disease a feeling "round the back". However, the classic kyphotic posture involves only the strengthening of back bending in the thoracic spine.
Usually, this pathology in adults is accompanied by deformation of the lumbar and cervical parts of the vertebral column, there is a specific picture of the disease by visual inspection.
The Pathology most often observed in students as a result of wrong landing behind a school Desk, but there are also innate. In the latter case, specific changes of the spine caused by hypoplasia of the ligamentous-muscular apparatus.
Types of strengthening physiological curvature in the thoracic region
The etiological (causal) principle distinguish the following types of enhance breast bend:
- Hereditary (congenital) due to abnormal structure of the thoracic vertebrae, which occurs in utero due to inherited genetic defects in the structure of the skeletal system. The frequency of occurrence of this type does not exceed 5%;
- Compression (post-traumatic). Due to the traumatic effect on the thoracic or lumbar spine
- Rachitic. Is formed due to the insufficient amount of vitamin D a child's body. This causes weakness of bones and vertebrae;
- Functional (hypermobility). Occurs due to weakness of the muscle corset back at the wrong posture. Treatment of this form involves the use of therapeutic exercises and fixing posture that effectively get rid of the disease with complete recovery of physiological curvature
- Senile (senile). Observed in old age because of impaired blood supply and flow of nutrients. Some stake in the emergence of this form makes the abnormal development of the muscular system;
- Total. Due to the multiple pathological processes. It has increased the breast bending and straightening of the cervical and lumbar lordosis. Precipitating factor of the disease in this case is considered to be osteoporosis of the bones (the vacuum structure due to the lack of calcium);
- Infectious. The cause is inflammatory changes of the vertebrae in the face of infection (tuberculosis, syphilis, nonspecific spondylitis);
- post-Radiation. Is formed due to medical ionizing radiation (for tumors) or consumption of foods rich in radioactive substances.
depending on the localization of excessive convexity posteriorly are the following forms:
When you reject all physiological bends posteriorly traced total form kyphotic posture. It is rarely accompanied by only a displacement of the spinal column posteriorly. Often in total hypercite there is a curvature of the spine in the lateral plane – kyphoscoliotic posture. In this situation, you receive a compression syndrome caused by infringement of spinal nerves.
- Pain in lower limbs
- Numbness of the skin by compression;
- pins and needles Feeling;
- Pain along the spine at the feeling;
- Frequent urination and disturbance of menstruation in women;
- Pathology of reproductive sphere;
- shortness of breath due to the reduction of functional lung tissue (compress the chest).
It Should be noted that the physiological kyphosis in the thoracic region characterized by the angle of curvature is not more than 40 degrees. In the lumbar spine is observed in normal lordosis – convex anteriorly. If he peremeshivaete in the opposite direction (occurs rarely) doctors call the pathology of "lumbar kyphosis".
To describe the symptoms be careful of kyphosis in the thoracic spine, there are 4 conventional categories of the disease:
- is Formed due to muscle weakness. Most commonly found in children and the elderly. With the weakness of ligament-muscular aponeurosis of the back curves of the spine may not be supported in the physiological position. In this situation, kyphotic posture observed only in a vertical position. When a person takes a horizontal position, it disappears
- fixed Deformation is not pathological adhesions in the chest cavity, but the bending can be enhanced to 50-60 degrees. Radiologically in this category of disease may be a wedge-shaped deformation of the vertebrae in the top of the curve;
- Pronounced Hyper-kyphosis. On the back of strong displacement of internal organs in the chest can be formed adhesions, and pathological curvature of the spine becomes fixed. Against this background, the spinal axis, as a rule, is shifted in the frontal plane with the formation of kyphoscoliotic posture. On the radiograph of the thorax in lateral projection showing signs of torsion displacement of the vertebrae (rotation around the axis)
- Sudden severe torsional deformation with displacement and rib hump, which is not subjected to correction. Deformation creates disfiguring changes in the body. Its background appears the deviation and the twisting of the spinal column. Rib hump deviates anteriorly and to the side. Radiographically, one can observe the vertebrae rotated about its axis and with an uneven height (wedge-shaped).
Kyphotic posture lends itself well to treatment in the initial stages. When grade 3 and 4 pathology need surgery to restore the shape of the vertebrae and the return of the axis of the spine in physiological position. Correction of disorders of surgical method involves the installation of metal posts, locking the axle in the correct position.
If such a device installed, you will need to wear it throughout life. However, pain in kyphosis can lead to serious heart disease, so the operation is vital. Easier to prevent the strengthening of bending posteriorly by strengthening the muscle corset back.