Correct posture student and exercise for the prevention of its violations
Correct posture student is the concern of doctors. Today spinal curvature is observed in 80% of children of school age. The reason for this phenomenon lies not only in the wrong boarding school, but in the specifics of a person's lifestyle. What is posture and how it affects human health, analyze the article.
How does a posture bending
Poor posture is accompanied by a shift of all the organs of the human body. To avoid this, it is necessary to identify this pathology For this man should take the usual posture while standing with heels together and the divergence of socks at the angle of 45-50 degrees.
The following parameters are Estimated:
- the Position and symmetry of the girdle of upper extremities
- Projection axis of the spine and physiological curves of the state;
- Tilt of the pelvis and the shape of the chest;
- Position of the lower limbs.
When the above violation of the symmetry of anatomical structures is assigned x-ray examination of the spine to exclude pathology of the vertebral column. If it is identified, treatment of diseases of the spine. Violation of posture in this case is secondary (arising following the curvature of the spine).
Pathological posture student is often the primary. It is formed because of the asynchronous development of the skeletal muscles on both sides of the back at the wrong boarding school.
The Growth and formation of vertebral column in children occurs up to 25 years. At this time it is highly susceptible to external influences. Thus, prolonged incorrect boarding school muscular system of the back on both sides are formed asymmetrically. While on one side the muscles are in a state of contraction, and relaxed. As a result of hypertonic muscles generates the displacement of the axis of the spine in his side.
In the process of life with spinal cord occurs in several stages of restructuring, in which it is most susceptible to pathological effects:
- After birth there is a formation of physiological curvatures (cervical, thoracic, lumbar and lumbosacral);
- In the school years of the cartilaginous structure of the vertebrae is starting to ossify (get enough calcium salts). If the vertebrae are damaged, they are properly fused and will never go back to a normal state;
- With 30 to 50 years old begin the process of gradual involution of the spinal column. After 50 years, the physiological curves flattened, and the cartilage tissue becomes less strong.
Due to such changes, it is important to ensure the formation of the axis of the vertebral column in high school. Only competent prevention of postural disorders in schoolchildren will help to prevent serious diseases in the future.
Posture affects the layout of all internal organs. Their displacement relative to each other disrupts many physiological processes:
- Changes in blood pressure and heart function due to difficulties with the "pumping" of blood through the vessels;
- Hampered the promotion of stool through the intestines;
- trouble urinating
- Due to compression of the nerve root there is pain in various organs.
How to determine the violation of
To assess your posture at home, be sure to perform the following steps:
- Stand tightly to a smooth wall;
- Close your heels together and place the socks under the angle of 45 degrees;
- put your hands Down at the seams.
Try to stick your hand between the wall and the lower back. If the hand fails, a person correct posture.
To avoid errors one should pay attention to the following details:
- Head with the body on the same vertical line;
- relief of the neck should be symmetrical (estimated by the line drawn from edge of shoulder to the tragus of the ear)
- Shoulders and shoulder blades are on the same level.
There is a method of determining the mobility of the spine. To do this:
- Stand up vertically and try to get the tips of the fingers the floor;
- torso to the right and remove the floor. Similarly follow the tilt in the other direction;
- Lean back as far as possible.
If the person in the performance of these slopes may not reach the horizontal level, it is obvious that he has impaired mobility. To determine the degree to measure the remaining distance, which is lacking to the floor. When bending forward and sideways is measured the distance between the tips of the third fingers of the hand and horizontal surface. When you bend backwards, it is necessary to measure the height betweenthe seventh cervical vertebra and the buttock crease.
There are tests to evaluate power endurance, which often changes with posture. For this one should do the exercise "swallow" (see figure) and fix the time that he could be in this position.
- Children aged 7-11 years should normally be able to withstand the pose for 2 minutes;
- they should be able to fix the position of about 2.5 minutes;
- Adults – more than 3 minutes.
If a person has bad posture, and strength endurance is not broken, apply a complex of medical gymnastics.
the Main types of defects of the back
Postural Defects arise from disruption of normal development of the muscular system of the back. They lead to the physiological changes of concavity and convexity. If the condition continues for a long time, observed the curvature of the spine in the lateral plane (scoliosis).
The Curvature of the back may be in two planes: frontal and sagittal.
Defects of the back in the sagittal plane:
- Round spin – flattening of the lordosis in the lumbar spine and the increase in the degree of convexity of the thoracic kyphosis;
- Krugovorota spin – increase in the angle of inclination of the pelvis, as well as all curves of spinal column;
- Slouch – reducing lordosis and increased thoracic kyphosis;
- Flat back – reduction of pelvic tilt and lumbar lordosis with low severity of thoracic kyphosis;
- spin-Concave – increasing lordosis in the lumbar spine with a decrease in the thoracic kyphosis.
In Addition to the changes back when the above defects are observed secondary changes:
- flattening of the blades;
- Retraction chest;
- tilt of the head and neck forward;
- Wing-shaped protrusion of the blades;
- Variance of knees to the sides;
- thinning of the muscle groups of the back of the thigh.
Defects in the frontal plane lead to the violation of the symmetry between the left and right half of the body.
Exercises to maintain the physiological state of posture
Treatment of back defects involves compliance with certain mandatory principles:
- Sleep on a hard bed;
- Regular physical activity;
- avoiding harmful habits;
- Quality control of the load on the spine;
- Precise correction of the Shoe while shortening leg. Different length legs, is a frequent phenomenon in the deformation of the back.
Poor posture requires the appointment of a special medical gymnastics. Types of exercises the doctors selected depending on characteristics of the defects of the back:
- for flat-concave back and needed exercises to improve spinal mobility;
- When there is a sideways curvature are assigned exercises to strengthen thoracic kyphosis;
- Round spin requires physical therapy aimed at improving the functionality of the shoulder girdle.
To correct the back there are 3 main groups of exercises:
- To improve the mobility;
- To strengthen the thoracic kyphosis;
- To enhance the functionality of the shoulder girdle.
Kinds of gymnastics to improve mobility:
- Before meals 2-3 times a day, strengthen your abdominals and back. Pressed against the wall so that the shoulders, neck, heels and pelvis tightly to the surface. To eliminate gaps between the spinal cord and back, you need to pull the belly in. Duration of preservation of position – 60 seconds;
- Breathe evenly in a standing position, and as you breathe out pull your stomach and sit down on the floor. Take a breath and sit on your knees. The arms should be down. Repeat the exercise 6-8 times.
Exercises to strengthen kyphosis:
- Sit on the Mat so that feet were bent, the neck is vertical, the feet are together and the chin tucked up. Not breathing deeply and evenly. Repeat 10-20 times complex;
- In a seated position, perform 10-15 tilting the torso forward and backward. This breathe evenly. After running 5 tilts need to relax for 30 seconds.
Exercises to improve the functionality of the shoulder girdle:
- Take a small breath and lipocyte belly forward. On an exhalation strongly pull in a stomach. Repeat exercises 2 times a day for 30-60 times. The number of repetitions needs to grow;
- Follow the rotation of the hands to the sides right and left. The number of repetitions of 15-20. At the same time with exercises you need to breathe evenly.
How to prevent a stooped posture in schoolchildren
To form a correct posture of a student, follow these recommendations:
- you Cannot "write nose". When sitting at the school Desk should not rely close to the chest on its edge. On the contrary, you must try to keep your back vertically near the back of the chair;
- Row must be located at the lower part of the chest of a student. If it is too highhandwriting will continue to go up, forming the lifting up of the right shoulder girdle;
- the Chair should be selected in height so that it matches the size of the tibia (along with shoes);
- Seat width should occupy approximately 2/3 of the length of the hips of a schoolboy;
- Between the backrest and the table of the Desk there should be a distance equal to the size of the chest of a student in the front-rear direction of the enclosure 5 cm;
- When writing, the child needs to take the correct posture: the legs at a right angle, the head is raised, chin lowered, the shoulder belt is located at the same level.
scoliosis is a complicated symptom complex pathology that affects almost all the organs. Its treatment requires a duration and frequency of repetitions of the special gymnastic exercises.