All about posture disorders: causes, types, prevention, treatment exercises
Poor posture is not a disease, but leads to serious pathology. On the background of reduced mobility of the chest, worsening the depreciation function of the spine, disturbed activity of the Central nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems.
Principles of classification of posture
In medicine, there are 5 main principles for determining the normal posture:
- shoulder Girdle are located on the same level;
- Spinous processes are on a plumb line (a thread with a load hanging in a vertical plane)
- Corners of the blades are symmetrical and divorced on the same level;
- Triangles between the arms and torso equal on both sides;
- the Curves of the spine in the sagittal plane are correct with the depth of 2 cm in the cervical spine and up to 5 cm in the lumbar.
Asymmetric posture (curve, pathological) is characterized by a deviation of at least one of these parameters from the norm. To determine the type and curvature of the back and assign qualified treatment, created several classifications of the disease.
In America, the scoliosis was classified until 1936 Brown on typology, which was adopted in 1927 and included 13 types of pathology. Its practical value proved to be inefficient, so in 1957 a Polish doctor Wolanski has developed a classification based on the deformation curves of the vertebral column:
- Legationsrat posture (L);
- Kyphotic posture (K);
- Uniform posture (R).
later this gradation was reviewed by doctors and is also slightly modernized. So there are new types of curvatures of the spine:
- Legationsrat posture
- Kyphotic posture
Stolovatets characterized by increased cervical lordosis, so his head goes forward the torso axis.
When legationsrat the type of curvature pronounced lumbar lordosis. Kyphotic posture is accompanied by hyperextension of the thoracic kyphosis.
These changes often develop scoliosis, but this disease not relates to the curvature of the back. She is an independent nosological form. To distinguish between curvature of the spine in the lateral plane under the influence of muscles and true scoliosis some doctors use the term "scoliotic arc".
In 1962 appeared the classification of Nedrigaylov. It evaluates the changes of the vertebral column depending on the position of the functional segments of the human body and fixation of the joints of the lower extremities:
- type of Flexion with a symmetric bent the knee and hip joints. When the axis of a human body is displaced anteriorly. Most often the type of bending observed in children and older people;
- Active / passive a symmetric type with vertical localization of the lower limbs and trunk. The center of gravity is shifted posteriorly, the joints passively locked, and the surrounding muscles are in a constant state of contraction
- Extensor symmetrical type is characterized by pederasyon knee and hip joints. Localization of the center of gravity of the body shifted by 4 cm backwards. The axis of rotation of the knee and hip joint deflected anteriorly;
- Asymmetrical type accompanied by extension of the knee and hip joints. These passive joints are locked with the constant tension of the ligamentous-muscular apparatus. Due to the asymmetry of the position of the body the other leg takes much less stress.
Poor posture is accompanied by a change of geometry of the spine, so in 1973 all types of pathology were classified depending on the tilt of the pelvic bones, curvature of the thoracic spine, the lumbar lordosis values:
- Front offset (to one side)
- Sagittal offset;
- Combined offset.
In the frontal plane of the vertebral axis often shifts the child under the age of 16 years. This creates a scoliotic arc (not to be confused with scoliosis), in which the spine deviates from the midline position to the left and to the right.
In the sagittal plane the curvatures are divided into 2 groups:
- flattening of the physiological curvature
- With its increase.
While increasing lumbar lordosis (physiological confluence of the spine in the lumbar spine) and thoracic kyphosis (protrusion of the arc in the thoracic region) is formed krugovorota back. The total increase in vertebral arc creates logochicago type of spinal curvature.
When flattening all the curves of the spinal column, there is flat spin.
The Combined type is characterized by curvatures in the frontal and sagittal plane varying degreesseverity. To describe some doctors use the term "curve back".
Types of curvature of posture in children
The child is the main cause of incorrect posture is poor development of the muscular-ligamentous apparatus and the continuous growth of bones and joints. Principles of classification of pathology in children and adults differ.
On the correctness of the axis of the spine the child is affected by several factors simultaneously:
- the Severity of muscular corset back;
- Height and weight indicators;
depending on these reasons, there are 5 types of displacement of the back:
- the First is the children with a symmetrical axis of the spine, but with the presence of muscular hypertonicity, lowered the blades, a minor deformation of the chest;
- the Second group – a child has curvature of the spine in the frontal plane is not more than 1 cm is Defined as drooping of the shoulder girdle, different size triangles of the torso, flattening of the foot (flat feet). Medical treatment for this type of violation is not assigned, as the pathology may correct their own child by muscle tension;
- the Third type is the offset of the vertebral axis in the sagittal plane. Depending on the nature of the curvature of the back of the child becomes krugovorote, round or flat. In pathology, there is also the confluence of the chest, weakness of the muscular system of the back, flattening of the buttocks. Pathology requires skilled care;
- the Fourth group – the child moves several curves of the spine in the frontal plane, which leads to the appearance of symptoms of scoliosis. There is a twisting of the vertebrae (torsion), change the size of the triangles waist asymmetry shoulder girdle;
- TOOOhe Fifth type – children with deformities of the spine in the sagittal plane in the form of kyphosis and scoliosis. Wing blades, flattening of the chest and exposed shoulder joints – the external symptoms of the disease.
The Above types of posture are not common, but help doctors to prescribe competent treatment of the disease.
Some paediatricians in the identification of the curvature of the back of the baby prefer to use a simplified classification, which includes the following types of posture:
- Good – the belly and the front part of the chest are in one plane;
- Very good – the chest is slightly shifted forward relative to the stomach;
- Average – the abdomen protrudes forward relative to the chest, increased lumbar lordosis,
- Bad – stomach protrudes strongly forward, lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis increased.
In 2001, was designed gradation, taking into account the peculiarities of development of children. The authors Didur and potapchuk offered separately to highlight the posture preschooler, teenager, girls and boys because of the peculiarities of physiological structure of the vertebral column at these stages of human development.
Preschooler shoulders should be vertical, the abdomen is protruding forward, and the blades protrude slightly. In this case only the lumbar lordosis begins to form.
The child at school age the shoulder belt is a symmetrical, vertically arranged head and torso, the blade shifted to his back, a protrusion of the stomach is reduced.
Optimal posture boys and girls accompanied by a vertical body and head. The shoulders slightly lowered, the vanes are fixed to the back. The girls and boys nipples of mammary glands are symmetrical, well defined curves of the vertebral column.
Causes of curvature of the back
The causes of incorrect posture occur because of biological defects of anatomic structures of the person, the action of unfavorable environmental factors, a strong dynamic and static loads on his back.
Regardless of the cause incorrect posture, pathology in the stage of formation goes through two stages: predvoleny and disease.
At the stage of the pre-existing one does not feel pathological changes in the body. The initial manifestation of functional insufficiency of the organs are compensated for their backup mechanisms. It is noted the change of indexes of physical development. The above changes are reversible with skilled treatment or directed kinesitherapy (movement exercises).
The disease manifests itself by symptoms of scoliosis, osteoarthritis (General joint disease), back pain, upper and lower limbs, curvature of the back.
The Duration and impact of the causal factor on the human body lead to the formation of 2 types of pathology:
- Fixed – child muscle tension cannot take a normal posture;
- Functional – if you ask your child to align the shoulders and to bring together the blades, he can do it. In a relaxed posture data of the anatomical structure shifts.
Fixed view often leads to scoliosis, and therefore requires urgent treatment immediately after detection.
Reasons for bad posture is also cause phase for pathology:
- the First phase is accompanied by a deficiency of the neuromuscular system due to adverse conditions and availability of biological defects;
- Second – fixed deformation of the musculoskeletal system. Appear initial manifestations of insufficiency of support systems of human life(cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous);
- Third, there are bone-joint changes and deformation of the musculoskeletal system.
depending on which phase of the process observed in humans, doctors choose treatment. There is also a difference between the principles of treatment of a sick child and an adult.
Treatment of spinal deformities
Some experts are considered to be stretching the most effective treatment for curvature of the back. It prevents compression (compression) of the intervertebral disc in the presence of scoliosis, round back and flat in humans.
The average complex stretching for adult consists of the following postures of the person and the force applied (in Newtons):
- On the back – 300
- Standing – 850
- while walking – 850
- When bending the torso – 950;
- Sitting – 1000
- while laughing – 1200;
- When lifting from the horizontal to the sitting position – 1740;
- lifting 200 Newtons and your knees bent – 2100
- tilt forward when lifting a load force of 200 Newtons – 3400.
Treatment of lumbar traction is not supported by all experts. Some doctors have a negative attitude to this therapy, as it is believed that stretching at the same time increasing the intervertebral gaps will cause damage to the musculo-ligamentous structures.
There are effective exercises for posture that help to avoid scoliosis by strengthening the muscle corset back. Therapeutic exercise is the most effective prevention of warp.
Exercise to correct stooped posture, scoliosis, flat back and round in the global network a lot, so we will describe only the important principles of their application:
- Complex for decompression (removing the pressure of the spine) consists of exercises at the wall bars, gymnastic Board and the crossbar. It is also used for prevention of scoliosis;
- Exercises to increase the mobility of the segments assume a gradually increasing effort to stretch blocked Department;
- Prevention of violations of posture is performed using the set of exercises, including static and dynamic loads (in motion). For cervical apply exercises with a shake of the head left or right, thoracic – arching back and forth, lumbar and tilt
- Swimming breaststroke greatly speeds up the efficiency of treatment of pathology;
- set of exercises for flexibility stretching included in yoga principles;
- To study the intervertebral disc there are vibration exercise (running, walking) with rhythmic compressions and elongations of the vertebral column.
Principles of prevention of violations of posture
Prevention of violations of posture, scoliosis and other deformities of the vertebral column based on the following principles:
- Normalization of supply;
- the Prevention of osteoporosis (decrease of calcium in the bone structure)
- Organization of work and recreation.
Normalization of nutrition with a curved spinal cord requires a special diet:
- the Third part of the daily diet must include vegetables and fruits;
- in the Morning you should drink a glass of fresh juice;
- One part of the diet – animal and vegetable protein;
- Consumption of carbohydrates should not exceed 20% of all types of products;
- Fat is better to consume unrefined (cold pressed)
- do Not salt foods, and use instead of sea Kale
- Make the daily walks at least 40 minutes to eliminate a sedentary lifestyle.
Prevention of disorders of posture for the prevention of osteoporosis involves:
- the Consumption of foods rich in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus. For this purpose it is necessary to include in the diet dairy products and fish;
- Manganese is essential for delivery of oxygen to the intervertebral discs. It contains egg yolk, the peel of potatoes, onions, bananas, celery, peas;
- vitamins a and C are antioxidants and are struggling with the peroxide forms oxygen. The greatest number of them is citrus, carrot, cabbage.
In conclusion: types of posture that lead to the development of scoliosis, compression syndrome and many other diseases. Readers should not be afraid of this diversity, as the statistics in 90-95 percent of cases, the spinal curvature is formed over the years. It is easily prevented, if effective prevention of violations of posture.