What is muscle hypertonicity, what are its causes, symptoms and treatment in adults?
Hypertonicity of muscles is a huge problem in neuroscience. It is accompanied by pain syndrome, secondary changes in muscles and joints, limitations in motion, but the main thing – is a consequence of diseases of the nervous system.
Muscle hypertonicity is considered the most common syndrome in diseases of the nervous system. This can be a key symptom in the diagnosis and detection of disease.
Pathogenesis of hypertonia and its causes
Distinguish spastic and rigid types of increased muscle tone. Spastic type is distributed unevenly, selectively. Rigid (plastic) – spazmiruet all the muscles at once. Causes of spasticity – affected nerve centers and motor pathways, and rigidity – affected brain or spinal cord.
spasticity is characterized by increased tone. As a result, speech difficulties, difficulty in the normal movement. Cause this condition can:
- cerebral palsy
- brain injury
- disorders of nervous impulses.
The Cause may be damage to cortical motor neuron and pyramidal tract, hypoxia, encephalitis, meningitis, phenylketonuria.
Patients with cerebral palsy do not always have increased muscle tone, since all of the functions assumes the spinal cord. Deformities of the limbs this syndrome occurs only at the expiry time.
Multiple sclerosis may be accompanied by flexor and extensor spasticity. The legs are too straightened or, conversely, is pressed against the body.
Hypertonicity of the muscles on the background of head injury develops in the damaged brain stem, cerebellum and the midbrain. The affected hubs reflexes lead to stiffness, contraction of the hands and feet.
Very often, high muscle activity is accompanied by pain in the back and legs. During the movement increases muscle tone and increases pain. Discomfort in the back area develops through the ischemia of the spine and of the spine due to other causes. But the tension in the legs occurs after large loads. The pain is localized in the muscle.
Signs of increased muscle tone
To Determine the syndrome is not so difficult. The symptoms of hypertonia in adults the following:
- discomfort during movement;
- muscle stiffness
- muscle spasms
- spontaneous motor activity;
- increased tendon reflexes
- slow relaxation of muscles in spasm.
Common symptoms in children are sleep disturbances, volatile emotional state, loss of appetite. Suffering from increased muscle tone people walk on toes, suggesting the neglect of the disease in childhood.
Temporary seizures in adults can occur after the stress of certain muscles. The process is accompanied with a pulling pain. This effect is often observed after physical exercise. This also applies to back pain. The man with the stiff and constrained. The presence of such symptoms may indicate the presence of serious diseases, not just about muscle tone.
In severe cases of muscle spasticity of the affected muscle becomes too tight and cannot be felt. Any mechanical impact, even the massage causes severe pain.
When the symptoms become quite obvious, it is necessary to conduct diagnosis to determine the precise diagnosis.
You need to take a blood test, an MRI and EMG. Expert advice is required.
Treatment muscle syndrome involves two stages. The first is overcoming the underlying disease, against which and there was increased tone in the muscle. The second is the correction of existing problems to facilitate treatment and normal recovery.
Finally to remove the symptoms can be a comprehensive treatment that includes pharmacotherapy, massage, physiotherapy, psychotherapy.
Medical treatment is aimed at minimizing pain syndrome, normalization of the nervous system. The method of therapy depends on your goals:
- relief of any symptom;
- decrease spasm
- increased activity and maintaining a normal gait;
- ease of movement.
As the main drugs used muscle relaxants and neuroleptics. Treatment can be based on one drug or combination.
electrophoresis Technique is often used for treatment of spasticity. It promotes muscle relaxation and pain relief. Effectiveelectrophoresis on the basis of anticholinergics, relaxants.
Kinesitherapy takes almost the main place among methods of treatment of spasticity. Movement therapy based on exercises and postural exercises.
Thanks to physical exercises there is a possibility for independent movements. Should alternate relaxation and tension and to do this from the beginning of the disease. To Supplement the exercises massage is the right solution. Classical techniques must be performed slowly and with pauses. Individually to massage different muscle groups.
gaining Popularity and the massage on certain biological points. So there is the possibility to cure the local hypertonicity. Points are chosen depending on the task and functional purposes.
last resort is surgical intervention. The operation is performed on the brain or spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles.
Accelerated rehabilitation can contribute to psychotherapy. Psychological impact on patient's confidence in the future, and will increase the chances of recovery.
opinion on the topic
Therapy hypertonicity of muscles is a complicated and lengthy. It requires a lot of effort and patience, comprehensive treatment and compassionate care. For maximum results it is better to go to a sanatorium to heal and get healthier at the same time. Thus, there is an opportunity to spend time with benefit and pleasure.