The main stages of the formation of pressure sores and their treatment
Stage pressure sores are significantly different from each other. However, they share the fact that they are hard to cure. Much easier and more effective to carry out preventive measures.
What is decubitus?
With long-term contact with a solid surface, and also due to stay constantly in monotonous posture in patients may arise bedsores. Is divided into 4 stages, each of which has developed in connection with the dynamic progress of the previous stage of the disease.
Poor circulation leads to the death of the skin cells. This greatly complicates the recovery of the patient from the initial disease. Most often, bedsores occur in people of advanced age due to different health disorders, after which it is necessary to lead a sedentary lifestyle.
The Main areas in which there is death of tissue, are those that have a point of contact with the bone. The horizontal supine position may cause deformation of the skin on the shoulders, elbows, occiput, and sacrum, ischial tuberosities and the heels. If the patient lies on one side, then there may be violations in the area of the ear, elbow, hip and knee joints. Sedentary patients are vulnerable to necrosis backs of the hands and feet, buttocks and sacrum, spine, and shoulder blades.
the Depth and severity of the layers of the skin
All 4 stages of the cell death of the skin can be treated. Depending on the extent of the damage are assigned to the appropriate action of the medical or surgical treatment. Best of all, when the care of such patients produces a nurse. Their operation is based on special knowledge, which has collected a table of stages of bed sores. It describes the possible methods of influence depending on the situation and condition of the patient.
I stage. The initial stage of pressure ulcers is not always accompanied by visible visual symptoms. Depending on the color of the skin can be considered the redness of the epidermis, which does not change colour when clicking on it. Most often the affected area has a reddish-purple hue. Tactile contact can be noted that this area is hotter or cooler than the rest of the surface of the body. If the patient has the opportunity to talk, he may complain of tingling or numbness in these parts. No other damages are not noted, therefore it is very important that the initial stage was discovered in time. Thus, there is a possibility completely to cure the defects without leaving any residue.
The Main treatment is the regular change of body position, if possible. Every two hours it is necessary to lay special inflator, that there is space for air circulation. In addition, it is necessary to conduct hygienic procedures using disinfectants.
Rinse chlorhexidine can, not to further dry up the skin. Then it is necessary to apply restorative ointment that will help to enhance blood circulation. For this purpose, suitable preparations Levomekol or Solcoseryl.
Also note the positive effect of bandages from the ointment Vishnevsky. They should be changed 1 time per day.
stage II. In the second stage of the pressure sores noted visible damage to the epidermis. The integrity of the cover is disrupted, can begin the exfoliation. Initially can be single sores or blisters. This suggests that the process of decay that affects the hypodermis. The surface swells. At this stage, recovery is possible, but it will be much longer and more complicated than in the previous class. In the treatment of deeper damage will need special wipes sterile powder. Wash the wounds by physiological solution or hlorofillipt. Do not use iodine and brilliant green antiseptic for cauterization of ulcers. To apply ointments that doctor prescribes. As additional activities spend the overlaying of applications with enzymes. They accelerate the process of tightening of wounds and skin regeneration.
stage III. Damage to begin to achieve fat. The surface is completely affected, and the skin is missing. The ulcer resembles a crater, and its bottom is filled with dead tissue yellow-brown. The main danger in this period is that can be damaged and healthy skin.
Under the treatment of third-degree lesions involve surgical intervention. During the operation, revealed necrotic tissue. Must conduct their cleaning and disinfecting procedures. Next, prescribed drugs that help to activate the regenerative function of the epidermis, overlap the dressings, which should be changed regularly.
stage IV. At this stage of development of pressure ulcers is the death of all soft tissues. One can see bones and tendons. Such manifestations are not treated with medication. The surgeon does the surgery, during which removed the remains of dead tissue is debridement of all remaining layers. Then maybethe transplanted artificial skin or a holistic healthy cover.
1. Prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers, Bazilevskaya, V. Z.
2. Wounds and wound infection, Kuzina M. I.
3. Method of treatment with trophic disorders, Karpov G. V.