Causes, symptoms, methods of diagnosis and treatment of Guillain-Barre syndrome
Guillain-Barre Syndrome is a severe disease that affects the polarity of the immune system. Its change, so that the immune system begins to destroy the cells-the neurons. As a result, a patient having autonomic dysfunction, and if the patient is not assisted, then develops paralysis. From the pathology affects around 2% of people, however, with timely intervention, the probability of recovery is equal to 80%.
Factors of development of pathology
GBS is known in medicine for a long time, but the exact cause of the formation are not fully understood. It is assumed that the basis for the development of pathology is the disruption of the immune system. In a healthy person with a normally functioning immune system begins to fight the infection if it enters the body. When Guillain-Barre syndrome a similar mechanism is bad work. The immune system begins to destroy the cells, confusing them with foreign bodies.
The reasons for the development of this condition is also poorly understood. It is believed that lead to the syndrome may several factors, among which are injuries and infections. Especially dangerous traumatic brain injury, which can lead to edema or brain tumor. In this case, the probability of developing the syndrome is high.
The human Body can successfully fight most infections. This reflects the strength of the immune system, which works in continuous mode. But the immune system may be depleted, and its resources require replenishment. The frequent emergence of viral diseases or infectious character may receive the earlier results. Waning immunity with long-term treatment of illness and the use of strong antibiotic medicines. In this case, the risk of developing the syndrome of doubles.
The Result of the pathology will be the destruction of neurons, as the immune system perceives them as the causative agent of the disease. Leukocytes begin to attack the cells and the top layer, the myelin coating loses its structure, is disjointed the flow of signals in nerve tissue. Signals may be lost.
Another factor is called a genetic predisposition. For this reason, during the diagnostics check and predisposition to various disorders of the immune system, including polarity. The presence of the native people of Guillain-Barre syndrome automatically puts the patient at risk. Therefore, a small head injury, infectious disease type and other factors can lead to the development of the syndrome.
The Symptoms of the disease are associated with three forms of the pathological process. With the rapid development of signs make the diagnosis of "acute form". For a relatively long period of development of symptoms are diagnosed with the subacute type. The symptoms of pathology may develop within 15-20 days. The most dangerous is the chronic form. She noted the sluggish factor and complexity of diagnosis. To prevent the irreversible processes in a timely manner is also quite difficult, which only adds to the complexity of the treatment presents the type of pathology.
- the Beginning of the formation of the disease is very similar to the symptoms of respiratory infections-viral type. The patient has a weak General and aching joints. Increased body temperature, and quite dramatically. In the upper respiratory tract of a patient has an inflammatory process catarrhal type. May appear disorders of the gastrointestinal nature. Some signs help not to get confused in identifying the disease. To distinguish SARS from syndrome helps to have weakness in the limbs.
- So how is the destruction of nerves, decreases the transmission of signals in tissues of muscles, there is loss of or reduced sensitivity of the indicator. Symptoms of the illness begin to occur in the lower leg area. Gradually, the discomfort spreads to the feet and hands. The patient then has a little tingling, which alternates with numbness and aching pain. Difficulty in performing simple actions may indicate the loss of control of coordination. Often the patient may find it difficult even to hold a spoon.
- Symptoms often are formed symmetrically. Tingling occurs in both hands or feet. This also applies to muscle weakness of the limbs. Such helps to distinguish pathology from other diseases that affect musculoskeletal system or of the structure of muscle tissue.
- Another feature is the increase in the patient's abdomen. This is due to the restructuring of the patient on abdominal breathing instead of the top. Such is the result of weakness of the diaphragm, which leads todifficulty breathing through the chest. Weaken not only the muscles of the diaphragm, and pharynx. This complicates the process of swallowing food, and sometimes the patient may even choke on his saliva. Weaken and other muscles of the mouth, making it difficult meal. Difficult bladder control, which is also explained by the weakening of the muscles of the categories.
what is the danger?
According to medical statistics, nature of the disease is slow. The disease develops over several weeks and gradually. The increase in the degree of weakness occurs within a few weeks. This begins to bother the patient, causing it to take appropriate action. However, the danger of the situation is late detection of the disease, the development of for this reason of the complications.
In acute stages of disease the symptoms develop very quickly, so urgently needed diagnosis and treatment. After 1 day of development of a pathology in a patient already experiencing weakness in extremities and tingling, can be paralyzed most of the patient's body. In the absence of aid, the patient risks to get paralysis forever.
After a while the acute stage of the syndrome have problems breathing. Hyperdynamic disease also requires urgent treatment in hospital, you need to diagnose the problem and prescribe treatment. The patient in this case can help. If necessary, apply connection to the ventilator.
Diagnosis is an important stage in any disease. From this stage depends on the further treatment, so it is necessary to seek help and not try to treat yourself. Specialist can detect the presence of pathology already at survey of the patient and the questioning. Of the pelvic organs can be saved, however, limbs are symmetrically affected. However, atypical symptoms may cause some doubts among specialists, so they use special equipment.
Used electromyography, which allows to determine the speed of transmission of nerve impulses in the relevant fibers. To detect protein in the cerebrospinal fluid lumbar puncture is used. The amount of protein begins to increase one week after the formation of the pathology. Peak protein is achieved by the end of the first month of the course of pathology.
Used and electrocardiography, which is necessary to detect arrhythmias. Is used a blood test, which is required for determining the number of leukocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and indicators of other manifestations of the pathological process in the patient's body.
The Diagnosis can be confirmed and thanks to the slew rate characteristics and a long recovery period, which can reach about 2 months. The importance of diagnosis and indicates the time that is required to differentiate the pathology and to distinguish it from the following diseases:
- form Diphtheria polyneuropathy.
- of Polio.
- Intoxication with heavy metals and their salts.
- a brain Tumor.
Removal of pathology implies a wide range of activities. The effectiveness of the treatment is 70-80%. Use the following form of the elimination of the disease:
During the development of the acute form of pathology is required to eliminate symptoms of the disease. If you have problems swallowing use a special probe and tracheal tube. If there are problems with the withdrawal from the body in urine, we used the catheters. Interruptions in breathing, a weak diaphragm and respiratory failure require the use of apparatus for artificial respiration.
Symptomatic type of treatment depends on those or other signs of pathology. In the presence of constipation use laxative drugs, if fever, then resort to the help of fever-reducing medicine. They are used when the ambient temperature reaches a value of 38-39°C. When it is necessary to normalize blood pressure and heartbeat use medications that regulate these parameters. Constipation require laxatives.
To stop the progressive nature of the syndrome used plasmapheresis and hardware cleaning the blood. As a result of the presented method removes some part of the circulating plasma, which is in the blood of the patient. Instead, enter isotonic sodium. Can be used and other suitable substitutes.
Frequently used intravenous immunoglobulin. In the absence of complications the method gives a positive result for severalmonths perform therapy. The patient has chances to recover their health and return to normal life.
rehabilitation: prevention and forecasts
The Syndrome is detrimental not only to neurons. The ravages were subjected Kolokolnya muscles, which leads to the need to re-teach the patient to move: to walk, hold a pen or spoon in his hands and perform other actions.
With this purpose, use a traditional type treatment:
- physiotherapy, rubbing and massage.
- Radon baths.
- Contrast showers and baths to relax.
- Application of paraffin or beeswax.
During the recovery process the patient is obligatorily vitamin therapy and a healthy diet. For the patient is needed are magnesium, calcium, potassium and vitamin B. be sure the Patient remains registered with a specialist, i.e. A neurologist. You want to be screened for prevention and early detection of factors that can lead to the development of the syndrome.
Certain prophylaxis to prevent the development of pathology does not exist. The specialist may advise the patient to promptly eliminate infectious diseases. This reduces their detrimental impact on the patient's body, including the immune system.
Patients who suffered a syndrome within 6 months, and sometimes more, to refrain from any vaccination activities. In addition, recurrence of pathology can occur at any disease, so you want to avoid those places, visiting of which can lead to infection. If necessary, use protection.
The Prognosis depends on early treatment. In 70-80% of cases the patient recovers almost all the lost functions. However, there may be small violations related to the musculoskeletal system. Complications are rare.
Approximately 3% of patients become disabled, which is also due to the lack of treatment or late intervention of doctors.
A Fatal outcome is possible for the same reason.