What is an arachnoid cyst, what are its types, symptoms and treatment?
An Arachnoid cyst is a benign hollow formation, which often occurs in the spine. Cerebrospinal fluid, the arachnoid cyst is another name for this pathology. The walls of the build-up is composed of arachnoid cells and scar tissue. A cavity located between the arachnoid membrane and the substance of the spinal cord in different parts of the spinal canal. Hollow outgrowth is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
cyst of the spinal canal has two versions
- This disease occurs in about half of cases of tumors of the spine.
- Its a code ICD 10 – D32.1.
- Treatment of this pathology is not always required. Some people live their whole lives with this disease without even knowing it, because often little education does not manifest itself. In many cases only during the random survey found that pathology of the spinal cord.
Retrocerebral – intracerebral cyst:
- Occurs in the thickness of the substance of the spinal cord as a result of injury, disorders of cerebrospinal fluid circulation after surgery.
- It is often progresses. Cause unpleasant symptoms. Pathology disrupts the function of the spinal cord, can lead to its destruction in the absence of the necessary medical care. Normal amount of brain matter is lost. It fills a pathological fluid.
Spinal cord – the complex structure of our body. Thanks to him we have the opportunity to travel, solve important problems, to perform various actions. This body operates as a whole. It regulates, coordinates the work of all systems of the human body.
Nature has reliably protected the spinal cord, surrounded by several membranes. But often threatened the viability of the organism, because even small tumors of the size of the interrupt functions of this organ. The malfunction of the autonomic nervous system and spinal cord.
causes of pathology
The development of the pathology depends on the tumor by nature.
Primary, congenital cyst has reasons:
- This education is a primary arachnoid cyst. It is formed in utero.
- Precipitating factor is the impact of negative conditions, physical growth retardation. Toxic agents, radiation exposure, drugs cause a disruption of fetal development.
- Cystic fluid gets into the spinal cord as a result of damage to tissues.
- It is a pathological substance is concentrated in the formed cavity and may be differently to show themselves.
Acquired cyst of the support of our body:
- secondary arachnoid cyst is a cystic tumor, acquired during life, in the spine occurs the abnormal growth of the spinal cord;
- trigger – trigger the formation of pathology is hernia in the lumbar spine, sedentary lifestyle
- such a cyst may develop after injuries and diseases: manual of spinal cord lesions, inflammatory pathology of the nerve roots of the lumbar, heavy development of degenerative disc disease, as a complication of surgery;
- is a secondary tumor is formed by cicatricial collagen
- perhaps the development of this tumor type malignant transformation;
- this disease often affects males and usually occurs before the age of 20 years.
- they are found in some regions of the country endemic for a number of parasitic diseases;
- meet hydatid cysts;
- they have a picture neuroimaging;
- such a capsule is filled with a product life of a particular parasite;
- MRI can be used to detect the capsule, which has a characteristic appearance.
There is a cystic cavity infections also:
- a pathological cavity filled with pus;
- develop limited abscesses of the spinal cord in the form of single foci;
- the patient notes a significant increase in body temperature.
- as a rule, it occurs after spinal cord injury;
- at this point usually occurs acquired cyst that is quickly filled with pathological spinalliquid.
Symptoms and signs
Congenital pathology form:
- Primary tumors do not usually have a bright clinical picture.
- Cyst filled with liquid.
- for a long time abnormal education may not be felt. The cyst is in a "silent" condition that does not manifest any symptoms. Often this pathology is found only during the diagnostic procedures.
- May occasionally cause severe headaches.
Secondary arachnoid cysts acquired by Genesis:
- the cyst may give dangerous symptoms.
- Pathological cavity compresses the spinal roots. In the spine occurs regular intense pain.
- Characteristic cramps: involuntary contraction in the arm or the leg.
- there is severe pain after physical activity, during physical activity, prolonged sitting. Pain concentrated in the buttocks, sacrum, lower back.
- Marked dizziness, dysesthesia, headaches.
- Increased blood pressure.
- Progressive acute pain in the shoulders, abdomen, hands the trouble.
- Function of the pelvic organs violated: potency, urination, defecation difficult.
- with the growth of the cyst is the offset of certain structures of the spinal cord. Develop more severe symptoms.
- Usually there is a rapid growth of atrophied tissue acquired lesions.
- Tingling and numbness in the feet, groin, fingers cause significant discomfort.
- Cystic lesion cause spasticity – tension in the limbs.
- Felt sudden weakness in his legs.
- have a kyphosis, scoliosis.
- Observed hemorrhage into the cavity of the capsule.
- If the formation increases in size, it turns into dangerous illness.
- Gradually atrophy of the muscles that are controlled by the spinal cord affected by disease.
Where is most often localized education?
This disease has a different location in the spinal cord:
- often affects the sacral, thoracic or cervical spine;
- in most cases, the abnormal cavity is located along the spine.
As a result asymptomatic course of this disease often have problems timely detection and diagnosis.
Very important is the history:
- during the interview with the patient, the doctor must find out the process of the disease;
- at this stage, the doctor forms a picture of the Genesis of pathology.
Appointed additional tests:
- scan of the spine with MRI allows us to determine the nature of the pathology of the spinal cord, the degree of abnormal cavities in the spinal roots;
- if you have a congenital arachnoid cyst, this becomes evident on a MRI scan and collect medical history.
clinical management of patient
If diagnosed with an arachnoid cyst of the spine, you have to be treated by professionals.
A Very important individual and comprehensive approach:
- Small cyst does not manifest itself. No treatment is required as they do not hinder a person to live. Such education alone can dissolve over time.
- When conducting conservative therapy of cysts, patients are prescribed a course of anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Painkillers help to relieve pain.
- the Operation fails in the congenital cyst. If this education for a long time remains asymptomatic, expectant management is resorted to. This specialist takes patient under active surveillance. Patients are observed for a long time. MRI is performed every 6 -12 months.
If such a tumor becomes symptomatic, tension is mounting its contours, signs of compression of the brain, most often the surgeon makes the decision on carrying out of drainage, shunt surgery. Laparoscopic fenestration is performed, the abnormal cavity. Open removal of the tumor with microsurgical removal of the pathological growths is not always carried out. Deciding on the surgery, the surgeon takes into account many factors.
What is histopatholo bypass surgery?
Efficiently carrying out fenestraria with excision of arachnoid cysts:
- during the complex operation for the purpose of emptying abnormal cavity uses an endoscope with a small camera. Through a small opening cautiously opened and a pathological cavity is the shunt arachnoid growths.
- Put the shunt valve of low pressure.
- Pathological fluid is mixed with the contents of the spinal canal and appears in another location in the venous system, peritoneal cavity. Then in the body occurs its redistribution.
At the first signs of arachnoid cysts shouldto get a consultation with a neurosurgeon.
The Choice of a doctor methods of treatment depends on the type and nature of the tumor, symptoms and it
Considering all the factors, in each case, the neurosurgeon takes the right decision about necessity of surgical treatment.