The symptoms and treatment of gordom localized in the base of the skull, sacrum and spine
With chordomas the base of the skull and sacrum doctors are faced quite rarely. It occurs in about 1-3 people from 1 million a year.
This tumor develops from remnants of embryonic notochord. It is considered a malignant tumor, but it grows slowly and metastasizes in very rare cases. So someone thinks its benign. It is located in such a place, which complicates treatment. Chordoma often recurs, in this connection, the scientists are more inclined to define it as a malignant.
The symptoms of the tumors is very diverse. They depend on the type of tumor and its location. Because of its localization difficult diagnosis.
About chordoma and its symptoms
This cancer can occur only within the spine, as is a remnant of the primitive notochord. Localized at any level of the vertebral column:
- at the base of the skull, and its posterior slope;
- in the sacrum and coccyx;
- within the brain;
- the bones
- in areas of the brain;
- in the nasopharynx;
- the spine.
The Tumor is very rare. Appears in people of any age. Affects men about 2 times more often than women.
60% of all diagnosed cases belong to chordoma of the sacrum. At the 2nd place of localization is the base of the skull. Chordoma other areas are much less common.
A soft Tumor, consists of shares. Her cells have different sizes. Their nuclei are small. Chordoma chondrosarcoma resembles, therefore, the diagnosis requires the differentiation of these diseases.
Chordoma are of different types. There are some that develop over a long period of time, very slowly. And in 10-15% of diagnosed cases, the tumor grows at a rapid pace. These tumors destroy bones, form metastases, penetrating the lungs, skin, liver.
Type chordoma and its location depend on the symptoms shown. If the tumor develops in the spine, it starts to hurt back, possible paralysis of this part of the spinal column, occurs numbness in the feet, disturbances occur in the digestive tract and bladder. Disturbed and male erection.
the Main symptom of tumors affecting the cranial base, is pain on the face. Also start problems with vision and swallowing. May be disturbed by it, appear regular dizziness.
If growing chordoma in the sacrum, the symptoms can be a disorder in the urogenital area and intestines.
But there are General symptoms, characteristic for all types of neoplasms:
- pain in the hands and feet;
- pain in head;
- problems with eyesight and hearing;
- loss of coordination
- disorders of speech and swallowing functions.
The causes of the disease are still not identified. But the disease rarely occurs among relatives, therefore, the hereditary factor is excluded.
Diagnosis and treatment of tumor
The Disease is diagnosed by using radiography, which reveals characteristic for chordoma defects and bone tissue. This study is in the early stages of the disease. Further, the diagnosis is confirmed by several studies. Among them, the histology and biopsy.
In some forms of tumors is a neurological examination. For example, when the sacrum is checked chordoma skin sensitivity, reflexes, coordination of movements.
Computer tomography helps to obtain a three-layer images, allowing you to see the shape of the tumor, the size, location, or have no metastases.
A Qualitative diagnosis helps to accurately establish the diagnosis and determine the correct treatment method.
usually, Patients assigned to surgical treatment. The tumor together with the capsule is fully excised. Unless there was a complete removal, possible duplicates of growth and metastasis.
The Operation is very heavy. After various complications and side effects. The goal of surgery is to remove the tumor to the maximum, but this is not to hurt the vital organs and can not cause great harm to the human body.
Radiation therapy as a standalone treatment ineffective. It is prescribed as palliative treatment after surgery.
Chemotherapy is also not affected by chordoma healing effects. There are currently no drugs approved by the relevant authorities, for chemotherapy treatments.
If chemotherapy is performed after surgery, chordoma usually recur. Moreover, the tumor may develop on the same place, and maybe aroundinitial localization. Some patients within a few years, endure many operations. But the chance to recover them with every surgery less and less.
In recent years, chordoma, including in the spine treated with radiosurgery system the CyberKnife. It is a completely painless method for the patient. It does not involve the person staying in the hospital for a long time. Not after its use of complications. Not required and long recovery.
This method is based on the fact that high dose radiation is applied to the specified areas, the tumor.
Adjacent organs not exposed to danger, because nothing does not affect it. After the procedure, no bleeding and infection, as the method is non-invasive.
depending on the type and location of chordoma prognosis for life is usually determined conventionally unfavorable. The patient survival rate for 5 years is about 30% with aggressive tumors. Non-aggressive patient when the doctors predict 5-10 years of life.