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Treatment of osteoporosis 1, 2, 3, 4 degrees

Osteoporosis affects the bones of the skeleton. It is based on the reduction of mineralization of bone leading to pathological fractures, treatment of which can be problematic.

The Disease affects people after the age of 55, especially of women in the climacteric period the changes of persons with impaired metabolism.

the degree of osteoporosis

bone changed

human Bones have a complex structure. They are heterogeneous with two clearly separated layers.

Compact layer is a dense structure, built of plates of bone. The spongy layer is very porous due to the fact that records in it are at an angle to each other.

Bones are made up of special cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The first function is the creation of bone tissue, while the latter destroy it.

In the course of demineralization, the osteoblasts lose the ability of producing and osteoclasts destroy bone even stronger. This causes cavities in the bones, they become brittle.

the Main causes of the disease

You Can select 6 main etiological factors:

  1. Old age.
  2. a Woman in menopause.
  3. Alcohol and Smoking.
  4. Diet excludes the consumption of dairy products, fish, eggs.
  5. disrupt the process of nutrient absorption in the intestines.
  6. Sedentary lifestyle.

severity

Allocate 4 degree of osteoporosis:

  • Osteoporosis 1st degree is not obvious. At this time you already have reduced bone density, but it can only detect with special methods.
  • Osteoporosis 2 nd degree. Mild degree. Trabeculae are thinned, but their integrity is completely compromised. Reduced bone density. These demolitions are diffuse and sporadic.

The First radiological signs can be detected on one part of the skeleton or the spine. Most often it is the vertebrae of the thoracic spine or lower limb.

  • Osteoporosis 3rd degree. Moderate degree. Bone density decreases even more. On radiographs of the spine are seen clear changes. Bone structure has a blurry appearance, there are areas of enlightenment, which are areas of demineralization. The bone marrow cavity expanded. Changing the shape of the vertebrae. They flattens it decreases its height. The vertebrae become wedge-shaped or concave appearance. Sometimes these vertebrae experts call "fish". At this stage, the disease spans multiple sections of the spinal cord.
  • Osteoporosis 4-th degree. Severe degree of osteoporosis. Strong demineralization. Expressed areas of enlightenment. Bones become "transparent". Along with them are thickened trabeculae, which were formed as a result of the compensatory ability of the body. The thickness of the compact layer is reduced, and the medullary canal expands almost twice. Increases the number of wedge-shaped vertebrae. The shape of bones is changed.

Symptomatic manifestations

For 1st degree symptoms are nonspecific. Sometimes you may experience symptoms that cannot be attributed to osteoporosis. For example, heaviness in the legs and back pain in the evening.

To Suspect the decline of calcium in the body by changing the condition of the skin: it becomes dry, hair loses Shine, can start to fall out, nails break easily.

It is believed that early graying is one of the symptoms of the disease.

The First signs may only appear in the 2nd degree bone lesions. There is pain between shoulder blades in the back. Pain in the spine aching, constant, worse after long standing or sleeping in an uncomfortable position. Sick as and feet after a long walk. Due to the reduced calcium levels cause muscle spasms in different muscle groups. But more often it is the calf muscle. Cramps mainly at night.

Suffer the patient's teeth. On examination, the dentist detects periodontal disease.

Calcium Deficiency negatively affects the functioning of the heart. Concerned about the disruption of the heart, premature beats, frequent attacks of palpitation.

In the 3rd degree to the fore problems with the skeletal system. It is characterized by constant pain in the spine, sacrum, scoliosis, stoop. Pain take permanent, aching, poorly relieved by analgesics. Significantly reduced the growth of the patient. Appears the probability of occurrence of the hump. Increased risk of hip fracture, wrist bones, collarbones.

At the 4th stage, the deformed skeleton. Growth is reduced by 10 see a Sick person itself becomes difficult to maintain. At this stage, occur frequently fractures from minor effects on bone. The treatment of these fractures has been delayed for years.

Diagnosis and treatment

The diagnosis can help densitometry. This method of studying the bone density and makes a conclusion about the presence of osteoporosis, but also determines what is his stage.

Strive to achieve the following goal: the number of osteoblasts increase, and the activity of osteoclasts, bone destruction, reduce.

The Methodstreatment:

  1. calcium Intake, phosphorus in the form of multivitamin complexes.
  2. Intake of vitamin D. It is involved in the metabolism of calcium, regulates intestinal absorption and deposition in bones.
  3. Calcitonin. It is the parathyroid hormone, which stimulates the flow of calcium into bone. The drug also yields good results on the 1st and 2nd stage.
  4. Treatment with bisphosphonates – the chemical compounds that cause the death of osteoclasts.
  5. In women in menopause used treatment with estrogen.