Osteopenia of the spine – symptoms, signs, treatment and prognosis of the disease
Osteopenia is a pathological condition, accompanied by a decrease in mineral density of bone tissue. When the disease progression leads to osteoporosis. It is difficult to diagnose because pathologic changes in the bones, causing a decrease in the content of calcium and phosphorus cannot be detected using laboratory methods and densitometry.
However, there are factors and diseases with a high degree of probability combined with osteopenia. Doctors recommend them in the prevention of reduction of bone density.
Why a disease occurs
Numerous clinical studies conducted worldwide, revealed no significant the causes of the disease. It is obvious that pathology is formed as a result of violations of metabolism and enhanced destruction of the bone structure.
Osteopenia in children appears due to congenital anomalies in the genetic structure of hereditary predisposition. It appears because of a lack of vitamin D during artificial feeding.
Pathogenetically at the age of 30 years have seen a gradual destruction of the bones. The body uses them as a depot with a shortage of calcium from food. This microelement is essential for the functioning of muscle and heart.
Physiological process of resorption (destruction) of bone performed by osteoclasts (cell disruptors). Octagones responsible for the osteoblasts. If between these cells creates an imbalance in favor of osteoclasts, observed first osteopenia and then osteoporosis.
It is Obvious that the change of metabolism can disrupt the physiological process of osteogenesis (bone formation).
Approximately so explains the mechanism of occurrence of this pathology.
Osteopenia in children (including premature) occurs if:
- inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract with disorders of penetration of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D3 (chronic nonspecific colitis);
- the use of resorptive medications with side effects (tetracycline)
- exposed to ionizing radiation.
A Special attitude of doctors towards such drinks, as Coca-Cola and Pepsi. They destroy the teeth and bones. Prolonged and frequent use is observed in children osteoporosis. This fact is proven by extensive clinical research.
Methods of diagnosis
Timely diagnosis can prevent severe complications of the disease. To detect osteopenia is difficult. There are no methods of determining the mineral composition of bones.
Ultrasonic and x-ray densitometry is determined by the decrease of density of bone structure in osteoporosis. The essence of the research consists of passing rays (ultrasound or x-ray) through the defined area. By reflection and absorption can reveal a decrease in bone density.
However, some private clinics with modern equipment can set the diagnosis and prescribe the proper treatment. There is a method of dual-energy absorption roentgenometry. It can be used to determine the loss of mineral structure of bones with the intensity of about 2% per year.
In state medical establishments abnormalities are identified on the basis of clinical symptoms. The first symptoms can be detected in patients with the following features:
- women after 55 years
- European origins
- frequent reception of adrenal hormones – glucocorticoids;
- sedentary lifestyle
- lack of vitamin D and calcium;
- alcohol abuse.
If you have at least two of the above criteria, a high probability of osteopenia.
In men pathology is detected less frequently, as they have more pronounced bone and muscle mass. However, after menopause the hormonal background is broken, so the resorption processes prevail over bone formation. For this reason, in old age the disease is detected with equal probability in men and women.
For the elderly-specific osteopenia of the spine with damage to the lumbar. Radiculitis, intervertebral hernia, a common degenerative disc disease and spondylosis is a frequent concomitant of the disease with osteopenia.
Although systemic degeneration of bone tissue for children is not typical, it occurs in 5%. The cause of the disease are hereditary conditions associated with impaired calcium-phosphorus metabolism.
Treatment of low bone mineralization
Prevention of disease involves the following recommendations:
- fill the lack of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D.
- Active physical activities.
- avoiding harmful habits.
The Replenishment of calcium deficiency doctors carried out drugs. In addition, regular consumption of milk with minor signs of diseasehelps prevent its progression.
The use of food additives with calcium allows to partially compensate for the deficiency in this trace element, but their high cost does not justify the benefit. Also useful will be crushed eggshell, which is added to food.
we must not forget to add in the diet of vitamin D. It is formed in the skin under influence of UV light, so you should spend more time in the sun.
A Significant role in the maintenance of bone mass is played by physical exercises. The bone tissue grows under the influence of muscular exertion. If actively developing the muscles, it pulls a bone. So is the physiological osteogenesis. Therefore, to build bone, you need to exercise.
found Signs of osteopenia in the elderly, when the indicator densitometry bone density more than 2. In this case, the elderly is marked deformity of the lumbar spine. To identify changes at radiography. On pictures lower back in addition to specific changes of the vertebrae would be a decrease in their density. A qualified radiologist will determine the disease "by eye".
Criteria for the densitometric diagnosis of osteopenia:
- if a density less than 1 – norm;
- from 1 to 2.5 is osteopenia;
- more than 2.5 is osteoporosis.
Diet in osteopenic changes in the vertebrae
The Diet when the disease involves eating fruit, greens and vegetables. Useful cow's milk and milk products (cheese, yogurt, fermented baked milk, kefir).
Increasing bone density contributes to magnesium. It is found in beans, vegetables, and grains. To prevent the rapid thinning of the bones, we recommend gymnastics. Doctors advise Jogging to increase bone mass of the lower limbs.
Treatment of disease pharmaceutical drugs is carried out only during the transition of osteopenia in osteoporosis.
Medical treatment of calcium deficiency in the bones
Treatment of osteopenia is cheap drugs that you can find in a drugstore.
here are the most common ones are:
Bisphosphonates are prescribed for the prevention of bone resorption. We draw the readers ' attention to the fact that these drugs are not conducive to osteogenesis. They only prevent the destruction of bone.
If a person regularly takes bisphosphonates, osteoclasts are not able to perform its function. Therefore, they can be taken only for a short time. According to experimental studies for a long period of blocking bone resorption may lead to cancerous transformation of bone cells. In this situation, the favorable prognosis of osteopenia changes to threat the patient's life.
Calcitonin is a thyroid hormone, which regulates calcium metabolism in the body. With its lack resorption prevails over osteogenesis. For administration to human use of the calcitonin obtained from salmon marine. The structure of this substance is similar to a human.
Raloxifene – a drug that activates the estrogen. When using it increases bone sensitivity to estrogens (female sex hormones), which increases bone mass.
Calcitriol is the drug of vitamin D. It contains high concentration of this substance, so it is sold by prescription. When using medication should continuously monitor the level of calcium.
Treatment turiyatita is appointed by the endocrinologist. The medicine belongs to the group of stimulants anabolic metabolism. If overdose is observed resorptive effect.
Thus, osteopenia – the early stage of osteoporosis. If treatment is begun in a timely manner, the prognosis is favorable in preventing systemic leaching of calcium ions from the bones.