Symptoms, treatment and diagnosis of osteoporosis
Osteoporosis makes the bone brittle and fragile. As a result a fall or even mild loads, such as tilting or coughing can cause a fracture. If you have this disease the most common are fractures of the hip, wrist and spine.
Bone is a living tissue that is constantly updated. Osteoporosis occurs when the creation of new bone lags behind the destruction of the old.
The Illness affects men and women of all races. But European women and Asian women after menopause are in a higher risk group.
high-Quality treatment, a healthy balanced diet and exercise with weight load can prevent bone loss and strengthen already weak bones.
Diffuse osteoporosis is a very common phenomenon among the elderly. A distinctive feature of this type of disease is that weaken the bones throughout the skeleton, not in a particular place.
Symptoms and causes
In the early stages, as a rule, there are not specific signs. But once the bones weaken significantly as a result of the disease, the following symptoms occur:
- back pain caused by fracture or shift of a vertebra;
- reducing the length of the body;
- frequent bone fractures.
It Is necessary to visit a doctor to check if the woman passed the stage of early menopause, took corticosteroids for several months or in the medical history of her relatives were hip fractures.
Bone is in a constant state of update. In the young organism, the new tissue is created faster than it breaks down old, so bones grow in size. Most people reach peak bone mass by age 20. With age, the bones dissolved, but the regeneration process slows down.
The Development of osteoporosis depends partly on bone mass, which the patient had reached in his youth. The higher this value is, the more fabrics in stock and the likelihood of illness is reduced.
What is tested
The Therapist may first be suspected reduction in bone tissue density. If examination of the bone tissue will show a deviation from the normal, the patient is recommended the consultation of narrow specialists. Useful will be checked by an endocrinologist (diagnose metabolic disorders) and rheumatology (focus on diseases of the joints, muscles or bones).
Before visiting a doctor the patient should make a list of necessary data that will help to make the correct diagnosis:
- Record the displayed symptoms.
- to Make a list of information about changes in lifestyle or stress for the last time.
- to Fix all medications, vitamins and Supplements, which were applied to patients in the past or use now. It is especially important to specify the type and dose of calcium and vitamin D in food supplements used by the patient.
bone Density is measured by means of radiographic or tomographic methods. When x-rays low levels of x-rays to determine the proportion of minerals contained in the bones. In most cases, it helps to check only a few places: hip, wrist and spine.
Although the disease cannot be cured completely, it is possible to prevent further degeneration of the bone tissue and to ensure the full life of the patient. All forms of treatment after the examination include the use of calcium and vitamin D. The Key to good health are exercise to strengthen bone mass. There are drugs that inhibit the loss of tissue and promote the growth of new bone.
In the treatment of osteoporosis are widely used bisphosphonates (the group of drugs for the treatment of bone diseases and disorders of calcium metabolism). Among the who recommendations the following remedies for the treatment of pain in the bones:
- Alendronate (fosamax, Binasco).
- Risedronate (actonel, atelia).
- Ibandronate (Bonviva).
- zoledronic acid (reclast, zometa).
Actonel, Binotto, Bonviva and fosamax (also available analogues) inhibit the cells that destroy bone, thereby stopping the legs. Actonel, Banesto and enough to take fosamax once a week, and boniva – once a month. In the treatment must strictly adhere to the Protocol of taking the drugs, because when used incorrectly they can lead to ulcers of the esophagus.
For treatment, you can use funds from zolendronic acid (reclast). It is administered for 15 minutes once a year. Examination of patients after treatment showed that significantly increases bone strength, decreases the incidence of fractures.
Save the bones, prevent fractures and avoid pain right after menopause estrogen will help. Hormone treatment effective, but increases the risk of blood clots, endometrial cancer, breast cancer and sometimes heart disease.
Raloxifene(evista) belongs to the class of selective modulators of estrogen receptor. Mimicking estrogen, the drug preserves bone mass but does not increase the risk of breast cancer or uterus, unlike with oestrogen. Evista can cause blood clots and often increases hot flashes.
For the treatment of men and postmenopausal women who are at high risk of fractures, use of forteo. It is a synthetic form of parathyroid hormone. Formula forteo is that this tool really does help osteoporosis, stimulating the formation of new bone and increasing bone mineral density.
In the treatment will need a daily injection for 24 months. Possible side effects include nausea, vomiting, dizziness and leg cramps.
A New approach in the treatment of diseases associated with bone resorption, are monoclonal antibodies (prolia). Made in the laboratory of human antibodies inactivate the mechanism of bone loss. This is the first attempt of the so-called "biological treatment" of osteoporosis.
How to strengthen bones and feel healthier
In Addition to the primary treatment and pain patients need to change lifestyle. If a man is not getting enough nutrients, then puts himself at risk.
The Most important to fight against disease (especially with diffuse form) is calcium and vitamin D. Calcium is a key building block of bone and vitamin D is a kind of "key" that opens doors in the bones, allowing them to absorb calcium.
It is essential to take these substances in the complex, as the lack of vitamin D will not matter how much calcium a patient receives, because the bones cannot properly absorb.
There are recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences about how much calcium and vitamin D should be taken of different age groups:
- Small children (1-3 years) – 700 mg of Ca2+ per day.
- Children 4-8 years 1,000 mg of Ca2+ per day.
- Teenagers – 1 to 300 mg of Ca2+ per day.
- Adults up to 70 years – 1000 mg of Ca2+ per day. Women over 51 years – 1 200 mg of Ca2+ per day.
- Men and women over 71 years – 1,200 mg of Ca2+ per day (to prevent symptoms of osteoporosis and diffuse pain in the bones).
For the assimilation of calcium mineral quite 600 IU of vitamin D per day before age 70 and 800 IU after 70 years.
What are folk remedies used in the fight against disease
Best strengthens bones and helps prevent diseases of the skeletal system, the rationalization of power. Doctors recommend consumption of calcium-rich foods such as skim milk, low fat yogurt, broccoli, cauliflower, salmon, tofu and green leafy vegetables.
In Addition to the primary treatment it is possible to use and folk remedies, as they can also help to avoid the development of osteoporosis and broken limbs.
since Smoking reduces the weight of bone by reducing the amount of estrogen in the female body, it affects the absorption of calcium in the intestines.
Consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol (more than 1 serving a day) reduces the activity of bone formation and the ability to absorb minerals. Moreover, intoxicated patients often fall and break limbs.
Very important is to prevent the risk of falls. Wearing shoes with low heels non-slip soles and eliminating slippery surfaces in the house will help patients with osteoporosis avoid accidental injury.
Popular tips for bones:
- to Beat stress. People are often thrilled to have high levels of the hormone cortisol, which leach minerals from the bones.
- to Do the massage with oils.
- to Consume sesame, as it is useful for the prevention of osteoporosis.
- to Avoid excessive consumption of caffeine beverages. Caffeine and high concentration of protein in the body excrete large amounts of calcium, which increases the risk of disease in the future.