Symptoms, signs and treatment of osteoporosis hip joint
Osteoporosis is a chronic metabolic disorder that is extremely dangerous to human health. The process affects one or more bones, eventually causing irreparable damage to the body.
Osteoporosis is Classified as follows:
- generalized (systemic) – detrimental effect on the whole skeleton;
- regional – affects a specific anatomical region (shoulder joint, knee joint, etc.)
- local (local) – affects one specific bone or part of it. Consists of two sub-groups – focal (spotty) and bottled.
depending on the form of osteoporosis, the disease will manifest specific complaints.
Possible causes of disease
As mentioned earlier, the losses in some anatomical regions causes regional form of osteoporosis. A positive point is simply that the pathological process is localized and may not be distributed.
The Hip joint plays a key role in movement and support of the body. Indeed, thanks to just two of the joints we age the body weight on the feet.
Anatomically joint consists of the articular surfaces of the gluteal, pubic, iliac bone and femoral head. Directly inside the joint is very significant ligament – ligament of the femoral head. Inside of this ligament are the arteries and vessels that supply blood to soft and hard tissues.
The Cause of regional osteoporosis may be a number of factors. Among them are injuries, trauma, surgery surrounding tissues, the impact of the thermal factor, bone tuberculosis, angiopathy, neuropathy, hypoparathyroidism, malabsorption of minerals, malnutrition, autoimmune diseases and more.
Only in detail identifying the etiology of osteoporosis, you can assign the current treatment.
Signs and symptoms
Onset is usually invisible. The patient does not feel anything unusual. And at this point, the pathological process is already beginning to harm, destroying bone substance. The reason of irreversibility of this process is that the osteoblasts (the cells growth and development of bones) in our body almost not regenerate.
Over time, bone beams are depleted, the bone loses its normal function and raises the risk of fractures and cracks. A characteristic feature of fractures in osteoporosis is the tendency to offset, because depleted not only bone tissue, but also periosteum.
Only when loss of function 30% of the osteoblasts in the affected area begins symptoms. The first sign may be the appearance of pain, which increases during exercise. There is a feeling of ache in the joint. Further progression of the disease process exacerbates, increasing the intensity of the pain.
Pain syndrome is very variable. Episodes of acute pain can change chronic and acute back then.
When you contact the clinic, patients complain of pain and associated insomnia, deterioration of the General condition. At this point it is very important to try to find the true cause of the beginning of the pathological process, examining other systems and organs. For example, hypoparathyroidism can be diagnosed by the level of parahormone in the blood.
With the help of palpation we can know quite exact localization of the lesion. Asking the patient to bend and straighten the leg in the hip joint, you can figure out which functions had already struck by the disease.
Complications and consequences of pathology
Regional osteoporosis can lead to many serious consequences, including fracture of the femoral neck. This fracture is considered to be one of the most dangerous for a reason. After all, when hip fracture person completely loses the ability to move at the time of bone healing. And osteoporosis affected bone heals much longer than is healthy.
During the fracture yellow bone marrow can enter the bloodstream. Circulates through the blood stream, fat emboli are in pulmonary arteries, which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE).
In addition, at the time of fracture may tear the ligament of the femoral head, resulting in hemorrhage into the capsule of the hemarthrosis. Sleeping position can cause congestive pneumonia, bedsores.
This disease can cause disability only in the event of complications. In the act indicated that osteoporosis, as a separate nosological form, cannot cause the receiving group of disability.
Diagnosis, treatment and methods of rehabilitation of patients
The Gold standard in diagnosis remains radiography. Using this method you can not only confirm the diagnosis but also to assess the degree of spread of the disease. Also cliniciansuse other diagnostic techniques: ultrasonic diagnosis, computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, blood tests, etc.
Therapeutic methods directly depend on the primary disease. But there are some General methods of rehabilitation.
In the period after the hip fracture patients helps medical gymnastics. Thanks to the gymnastics of the joint over time to restore its physiological function. Exercise should be increasing, to originally not to injure the joint. Often rehabilitation exercises are the squat, breeding, and mixing of the feet, bending / unbending of the legs in the hip joint.
Poor diet is seldom the cause of osteoporosis. However, most of these patients require a special diet, with a balanced number of minerals – calcium, sodium, etc. A Proper diet will help to quickly troubleshoot the root in this case, the cause of the pathology is lack of minerals.
Endocrine etiology of the disease requires immediate therapeutic intervention. One of the main methods of treatment of such patients replacement therapy. Autoimmune etiology of a disease requires treatment with cortisol or prednisolone. But as you know, these steroid drugs do not cure, but merely cropped the disease.
In some cases after a hip fracture required surgery and the replacement heads for the prosthesis. This operation is quite difficult and dangerous, given that the bone has suffered not only from fracture but also from significant depletion.