Polysegmental features of osteochondrosis of the cervical, thoracic, lumbosacral
low back pain – severe non-inflammatory disease of the intervertebral discs, which is characterized by the occurrence of dystrophic and degenerative changes of the cartilage.
This disease is very relevant in our time, because, despite the rapid development of medicine, targeted prevention of the disease there. But thanks to years of research result to improve the diagnostics and treatment of this pathology.
You must First deal with the classification of the disease. So, there are 5 main forms of degenerative disc disease:
- polyregional form.
According to the amount of damages allocate monosegmental and polysegmental forms of pathology.
cause of disease
This disease is characterized by multiple pathological processes in several of the intervertebral discs at the same time. This variant of the disease is determined by clearly defined symptoms, unlike monosegmental form.
Causes of polysegmental lesion set. But it is worth noting that such generalized injury is the cause for the effect of any systemic pathogenic factor, not a point of pathology.
so, the main causes of osteochondrosis:
- disorders of mineral metabolism;
- metabolic pathology;
- autoimmune disease
- endocrine pathology
- infectious disease
- injuries and operations;
- sedentary lifestyle or, on the contrary, the effect of too strong physical exertion;
- old age.
Determining the true causes of pathology plays a major role in the subsequent treatment and its effectiveness.
the Pathogenesis and mechanism of development
As mentioned earlier, the most common cause polysegmental lesion is systemic pathology. Therefore, the mechanism of development of polysegmental forms will also be systemic, i.e. simultaneously in several intercostal disks.
After exposure to malicious factor immediately begins a metabolic change in the intercostal disk. It is worth noting that these changes are irreversible. Start non-infectious inflammation of the cartilage leads to a change in its physico-chemical characteristics.
Modified cartilage begins to dwindle and to drift, which leads to further impairment of the spinal nerve. Obliterated the spinal nerve immediately reacts to harmful factor of the inflammatory process.
During the nerve inflammation are formed mediators of pain, such as serotonin, prostaglandins, bradykinin. These materials possess very high biological activity and even in miniscule doses lead to acute pain. Inflammation of spinal nerve roots in this case is called discogenic sciatica (radicular syndrome).
Symptoms and characteristics of pain
Polysegmental degenerative disc disease has obvious symptoms. Depending on topographical placement of the symptoms will vary.
Polysegmental degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine is manifested by severe pain in the neck, lower jaw and migraines. Sometimes the pains are so intense that mimics the pathology of other diseases. The lesions of the cervical spine can result in obstruction of the neck rotations. Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine is the most rare form, because this part of the spine takes the most minor load.
Polysegmental osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine is also called intercostal osteochondrosis and intercostal neuralgia. The reason for this is that the patients subjectively feel the pain in the spine and in the intercostal spaces.
Spinal nerves of the thoracic spine are directed along the intercostal spaces toward the sternum. In the intercostal spaces of the spinal nerves carry individual name – the intercostal nerves.
The Pain in osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine often mimics pain syndromes pleurisy, myocardial infarction, fractured ribs, pulmonary embolism.
The Pathology of the lumbar and sacral divisions for specific cause pain – sciatica and lumbago. They are characterized by strong paroxysmal pain as if sore from time to time fire the gun in the back. Sciatica and lumbago in the pathology of the lumbar and lumbosacral often mimic the pain of acute renal colic, the inflammation of appendicitis or peritonitis.
The Lumbar and sacral localization of the lesion happens more often. This is because the lumbar and sacral spine take the greatest burden.
Elimination of pain syndrome and treatment
Polysegmental spinal osteochondrosis requires focused etiological treatment. That is, in the case of autoimmune etiologyshould undergo a course of corticosteroids. Endocrine dysfunction requires replacement therapy.
But the first step is to get rid of the neuralgia. This can be achieved by using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, among which the most commonly used diclofenac sodium or dicloberl.