Causes, symptoms, treatment and consequences of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is represented by a combination of inflammatory processes in the spinal cord and brain of the patient. In the diffuse form lesions are located throughout the nervous tissue, it is scattered.
risk Factors pathology
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis refers to diseases polyetiological, indicating the diversity of ways of development of the disease. About 25-30% of patients face disease as a result of the introduction of the virus of acute encephalomyelitis of man. The remaining cases are associated with infection by non-infectious agents and infectious type.
Often the reasons of development of disease associated with the emergence of influenza viruses, chicken pox, rubella or measles. However, an unidentified gastrointestinal virus or upper respiratory tract can also lead to the development of the disease. Much less likely to lead to the pathology of vaccination, but such cases are met. This applies to vaccination against pertussis and rabies. Sometimes there is a pathology after vaccination against flu and measles.
Much less is encephalomyelitis, which developed after infection of the bacterial type. We are talking about staphylococci, streptococci and other pathogens. However, vaccination is not the cause of the formation of the disease, and serves only as a mechanism to run encephalomyelitis. To activate the disease must present appropriate conditions.
The Great value has a heredity that firmly holds the leading position among the factors leading to the disease. This is especially true of autoimmune diseases and the similarities of protein molecules at the genetic level infectious agents.
The Presence of foci of infection, stress and trauma – all this also has a negative impact. When physical and nervous disorders the patient is particularly vulnerable to pathology. However, can be attributed to factors with sex and age. The disease appears at any age, but occurs most often in children and youth. As for gender factor, encephalomyelitis occurs more often in boys.
How to recognize the disease?
The Development of the disease occurs within 4 weeks after exposure the factor provocateur. The manifestation starts after 7-8 days, and quite suddenly for the patient. Start rough, so it may surprise the patient. At this stage, the disease resembles acute infection, as symptoms of pathology of the following:
- signs of intoxication: reduced appetite, lethargy and weakness;
- high fever.
Allocate 3 forms of the disease:
Lobular shape of the lesion leads to the breakdown of some sections of the spinal cord and brain. The existence of focal symptoms depend on the severity and location of lesions. Occur in patients with the following syndromes:
- the symptoms of lesions of the cerebellum;
- mental disorders
- speech disorders
- neuropathy cranial nerves
- pyramidal signs;
- polyneuropathy of the extremities.
As for pyramidal manifestations, they are associated with a combination of paralysis of different muscles. There is an increase in their tone, tendon reflexes arise specific nature. Normally they do not occur, so their appearance clearly signals problems.
At the beginning of the development of pathology of the greatest severity have cerebral manifestations. They bring a lot of difficulties during the diagnosis, as similar symptoms are observed in neoplastic processes, intoxications and infections infections. More common symptoms include the following:
- impaired consciousness
- nausea and vomiting
Meningeal symptoms indicates the involvement of the meninges. The patient appears pain expander character in my head. During the change of position of the body observed enhancement of the mentioned symptom. The flow of sound or light also irritate the patient, causing discomfort.
In some cases, the patient cannot bend the head during your stay in the supine position and the chin touch the chest. This is due to the development of muscle rigidity of neck. With these manifestations of treatment to the doctor should proceed without delay. Otherwise, the consequences can be severe for the patient.
Methods of treatment
The treatment has the desired effect, it is necessary to carry out complex therapy, taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient and course of disease. The procedures are based on the elimination of the disease is to eliminate the causes of development. Whenthe viral nature of the disease it is necessary to use antiviral drugs.
A Bacterial form of the disease requires the use of antibiotics, taking into account the age of the patient. Selected dose by a doctor. Preference is given to drugs from the group of aminoglycosides, cephalosporins and penicillins. Groups are drugs Gentamicin, Kefzol and Ampioks, respectively.
The Development of pathology on the background of rheumatic fever requires the use of the scheme of bizillionaire. If encephalomyelitis refers to the effects of vaccination against rabies, or if the patient had the virus of acute encephalomyelitis of man, is assigned to a vaccination, which is directed against a multiple sclerosis and acute encephalomyelitis. Apply the vaccine Margulis-Shubladze in the subacute period of development and the severity of residual effects.
be Sure during treatment used anti-inflammatory steroid type, as the disease belongs to autoimmune diseases. Is not uncommon the use of pulse therapy. In severe and extreme cases, resort to the help of plasmapheresis. When late begun treatment of the consequences of the disease are characterized by development of complications.