Causes, symptoms and methods of treatment of transverse myelitis spinal cord
Transverse myelitis – infectious inflammatory disease that affects the spinal cord. The pathogen enters bone marrow, causing inflammation. When this affects the nerve roots and spinal membranes. There are several types of myelitis, which has its own symptoms and prognosis. Optimalit usually occurs in adults, the disease has a favorable prognosis.
Myelitis may be primary, it occurs when the penetration into the body of viruses that infect a neurons. The secondary myelitis is more common, it is a complication of various infectious diseases. According to the severity and duration of the disease may be acute, subacute or chronic. Most common distinguish between focal, diffuse, and transverse myelitis. Transverse form of the disease affects the part of of spinal segments arranged in a row. The disease most often develops in the cervical-thoracic spine.
In Addition to the infectious, it is toxic, traumatic, and radiation myelitis. When optimality are manifestations by sight, including blindness.
cause of disease
Purulent myelitis is an infectious disease caused by meningococci. In most cases, the disease provoked by viruses. The traumatic form of the disease occurs when injury of the spine. Toxic myelitis affects the nerve endings. Radiotherapy for cancer of the digestive tract and larynx can cause radial form of the disease. Development of inflammation of the spinal cord contributes to decreased immunity and hypothermia.
diagnosis is complicated by the fact that transverse myelitis has symptoms similar to symptoms of other diseases. The disease begins with an acute process, followed by early recovery period. Residual effects can be observed even 2 years after recovery. In the early stages of myelitis, pain in muscles, General weakness, and headaches. At the next stage, appear tingling and cramps in the limbs, girdle pains. After the intensity of the pain decreases, symptoms of neurological disorders – weakness in the limbs, reduced sensation, urinary incontinence, flatulence, and constipation.
In the later stages of the disease appear bedsores and trophic ulcers. Complete clinical picture may develop rapidly, symptoms can grow gradually. The most severe inflammation of the spinal cord in the lumbar, thoracic and cervical spine. When transverse myelitis is often marked by decreased muscle tone.
In the chronic form of the disease observed mild pain in the back area, violations of the pelvic organs, paralysis of the limbs, impaired blood supply to the tissues, leading to the appearance of bedsores. Connection of secondary infections and development of sepsis. Symptoms of radiation forms of the disease may appear after 0.5-2 year after completion of radiotherapy, mainly in the form of violations of motor activity.
Diagnosis and treatment of pathology
The Diagnosis is made based on the manifestations of spinal cord lesions and biopsy results of bone marrow fluid. The resulting material was examined for the presence of infectious agents and inflammation. Differentiate myelitis with arachnoiditis, cancer of the spine, mechanical lesions of the spinal cord.
Treatment takes place in stationary conditions, apply to this antibiotics, corticosteroids, adrenocorticotropic hormones, muscle relaxants, diuretic drugs. When the temperature of the body are appointed antipyretics. To remove the pain syndrome in acute myelitis apply narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics. When paralysis are appointed by physiotherapy.
When treatment is necessary to detox the body, to ensure regular emptying of the bladder, to prevent the appearance of bedsores and to treat existing areas of necrosis. Paralysis of the thoracic muscles requires artificial ventilation of the lungs. In the recovery period shows physiotherapy, physiotherapy, vitamins, sanatorium-resort treatment.
The Use of folk methods of treatment when Milito is unacceptable, not necessary to postpone visit to the doctor.
In severe movement disorders is having surgery. Surgery is indicated in the presence of suppurative inflammatory lesions, compression of the bone marrow.
In acute myelitis is possible to stabilize the state with the gradual disappearance of his symptoms. Manifestations of the disease canto persist for many years, the patient's condition deterioration will not occur. With the progression of the disease may result in the lower parts of the brain. Inflammation of the spinal cord thoracic and cervical has a poor prognosis. Purulent myelitis in most cases lead to death.
The Defeat of the spinal cord purulent forms of the disease can lead to loss of motor function of limbs, even in mild disease neurological disorders are manifested for several years after completion of treatment. They are expressed in the form of degeneration of the muscles, cramps and loss of sensitivity. Frequent complications of the disease are sores and disorders of the motor functions of the large joints.
Preventive measures can prevent the occurrence of secondary inflammation. These include vaccinations against polio, measles, mumps, and rabies. The disease significantly more difficult to return the patient to normal life and can lead to disability. Timely treatment increases chances for complete recovery.