Prognosis and life expectancy of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
One of the most severe autoimmune diseases is systemic lupus erythematosus, the prognosis with proper treatment is quite favourable. In this disease the human immune system destroys its own healthy cells needed to build connective tissue. These fabrics are contained in any division of the human body. Therefore, SLE causes damage to all organs and systems of the person. The disease may have a wide range of symptoms. It can be easily confused with other pathological processes, which significantly complicates the diagnosis.
Characteristic symptom of SLE is a rash on the face, having the form of a butterfly. TOOOhe Disease belongs to the class of incurable, but modern methods of symptomatic therapy can significantly alleviate the condition of the patient. The periods of exacerbation of lupus erythematosus alternate with periods of remission of varying duration.
Cause of disease
The Exact causes of lupus erythematosus is unknown. Many experts believe that the disease develops when the penetration into the body of viruses to which it actively produces antibodies. However, not all people in the body which detected the virus, get sick with lupus erythematosus. An important role in the development of the disease is heredity. Lupus does not occur due to immune deficiency and is not related to cancer.
The Impetus for the development of the disease can be excessive ultraviolet radiation, hormonal failure in the body, infection and harmful habits. Smoking not only triggers the start of lupus erythematosus, but also aggravates its course. The symptoms of the disease may occur after treatment with antibiotics, antifungal and anti-inflammatory drugs.
The Disease can occur in several forms. The acute form begins spontaneously and proceeds very hard. The disease develops rapidly and affects all organs within a few months. It responds poorly to standard treatment and can lead to death. Subacute form develops more slowly. From the first signs until the full clinical picture of the disease may take 3 years. The chronic form of lupus erythematosus is the most favorable for patient projections. The duration of the period of exacerbation is reduced with timely start of treatment.
The Symptoms can be very diverse – ranging from minor to severe, poses a serious risk to the health of the patient. The signs of the disease may occur spontaneously or increasing gradually. The main symptoms of SLE include fatigue, fever, chills, skin rash, swelling in the joints, chest pain when breathing, loss of appetite, weight loss.
On the face are rashes, which has the shape of a butterfly. Reddish spots may appear on the hands, chest, stomach. Other manifestations of lupus erythematosus include photosensitivity, signs of anemia, disturbance of blood flow to the extremities, baldness. The patient becomes irritable, suffers from insomnia and headaches. In some people the disease only affects the joints, others – all bodies.
With the defeat of the bones and muscles the patient experiences pain in the joints of the hands, is their gradual deformation. This leads to the development of osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, muscular dystrophy. Renal failure occurs in about half of the cases. With further development of the disease the patient requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
The Symptoms of the respiratory system occur approximately 2 years after disease onset. They manifest themselves in the form of pneumonia, pleurisy, cough and respiratory failure. On the background of lupus erythematosus may develop tuberculosis, pulmonary fibrosis or fungal infection. Lesions of the digestive system leads to peritonitis, diarrhea, vomiting and severe pain in the abdomen.
Are the Most severe manifestations of lupus from sight. Rapidly developing horioidit can lead to complete loss of vision.
Forecast life expectancy
In the chronic form of the disease all the symptoms are amenable to medical control. Proper treatment significantly prolongs life and improves its quality. How old are patients with lupus erythematosus? Modern drugs allow the patient to live more than 20 years after diagnosis. The process can proceed at different speeds, in some patients the symptoms increase gradually, others develop quickly.
The Majority of patients continue to lead a normal lifestyle. In severe cases, the affected may lose ability to work because of severe joint pain, fatigue, or mental disorders.
Quality and duration of life of the patient depends onthe severity of symptoms of multiple organ failure.
In the past, most patients died within a few years after the onset of the disease, now the person has all the chances to live to old age.
The Treatment of SLE is aimed at the removal of its main symptoms and eliminate inflammation. A complete cure is not currently possible, through long-term therapy to achieve remission. Throughout the life of the patient should follow a special diet, avoid stressful situations, to treat secondary infection. Drugs are prescribed depending on the severity of the disease. Doses of drugs decrease with decreasing intensity of the manifestations of lupus erythematosus.
In less severe disease are assigned non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and salicylates. Prolonged intake of these drugs can negatively affect kidney, liver and brain. When chronic fatigue syndrome are used antimalarial drugs. These tools can give side effects such as myopathy and retinopathy.
The Main method of treatment of lupus erythematosus is hormonal therapy. Corticosteroids have a pronounced anti-inflammatory action, but for a long time to take them is not recommended. They are prescribed together with cytostatic agents that reduce the frequency of exacerbations. When you join secondary infection, prescribe antibiotic and antifungal medications. SLE patient needs to constantly monitor its condition and inform the doctor about the slightest changes.