What is spina bifida
Abnormal development of the spine, which is formed at the stage of uterine development – spina bifida (Latin is called "Spina bifida"). Scientists have found that already in the first month of pregnancy the mother her fetus can develop this disease. What is it? Spina bifida is spina bifida. Illness may threaten the baby's life different pathologies. Among them hernia, malformations of spine, lipoma, abnormalities of the spinal cord, cysts is not deadly disease, but require special attention and intervention of surgeons. Sometimes hidden and explicit form of spins bifida. Every year almost 2 thousand children in Russia are born with this disease. In the majority of cases, the pathology is manifested in a complex form.
Features spins bifida
the Disease is characterized by improper development of the spine that affects the spinal cord and its surrounding nerves. the Disease is incurable and accompany the person during the period of a lifetime. Spina bifida in children requires the use of corsets and special tools that will help somehow to implement natural functioning, because the disease severely affects the Central nervous system and musculoskeletal system. Spina bifida is divided into types:
- the Disease is of moderate severity.
The Complex shape of a man chained to a wheelchair. All that I can do the doctors make the patient and help him learn to move. People with this diagnosis are born with defects around the spine or in any of its departments. Most often affected is the lower back. 1 suffers from sacral vertebra s1. Not overgrown shackle. At this level, the pathology is not dangerous. In the area of s1 it does not develop and does not affect other organs. The anatomical canons in children, the sacrum is separated into individual vertebrae, which in adulthood are transformed into a homogeneous system. Pathology of the lower lumbar vertebra l5 is shown not less often. Almost 85% of defects relate to the lower part of the spine, other diagnosed in the cervical and thoracic. Defeat area of the l5 vertebra is the most common.
You can Surgically restore the integrity of the spine, but the nerves to set in order will not succeed. According to the doctors, than closer to the head is a defect, the more severe the situation.
characteristics of covert and overt forms
The Most reasonable type of spins bifida – hidden. Obvious abnormalities and no abnormalities, the skin is not broken. The diagnosis "a back bifida" in a latent form put, when damaged one of the vertebrae and thus do not extend outside the nerves or spinal cord. Often a vertebra or l5 s1. At birth a child with such an anomaly pronounced depression in the area where the vertebrae is split. Sometimes a vertebra is attached to the spinal cord. This is another of the anomalies. The norm is the free slack of the spinal cord without touching the spine.
- Meningocele. Moderate form of disease. In this form the spinal canal is not closed, and require surgery to put everything back to normal. In adults, this type of spins bifida causes impairment of the gastrointestinal and urinary systems.
- Lipomeningotsele. A more severe manifestation of spins bifida in which the fat tissue, which in the normal state not in contact with the spinal cord, pushes it. The kids may not be disturbed nerves, but with gastro-intestinal tract problems are possible. Shown surgery.
- Myelomeningocele. Complicated spins bifida. The channel in which runs the spinal cord, not plugged, and all content sticks out along with the nerves. In addition to these characteristics, and the skin of the patient in this area is deformed. In patients with this form of the disease affected organs peritoneum and develop complex malformations of other systems.
Causes of anomalies – a lack of vitamins b and especially folic acid in pregnant women not only in the initial stages, but in all trimesters. If a woman is taking anticonvulsants, she falls into the risk group for the development of her future baby spins bifida. At the initial stage of fetal development of the spine and spinal cord are flat cells that later collapsed to become a neural tube. If it doesn't, or goes parts, there is a terrible disease. The reason it to the end is unknown, but the speculations of scientists are reduced to conclusions about the coincidence of circumstances at once 3 in the formation of the disease: genetic predisposition, improper nutrition during pregnancy and adverse environment. Expectant mothers are recommended to eat more vitamin b, to avoid taking antibiotics.
The High risk of development of spins bifida in the babies of mothers who have diabetes. If the age of thepregnant 40 years and this is her first child, when a woman refers to a socially disadvantaged segment of the population, drink alcohol, are obese, there is a risk of improper development of the baby in the womb. Doctors warn pregnant women from visiting the sauna, use of Jacuzzi.
what is spina bifida?
The symptoms of the disease depend on the form and its severity.
There are following manifestations:
- If the splitting is hidden, the symptoms may not be, or be a tiny speck in the field of pathology.
- In more severe forms symptoms become obvious, the vertebrae can bulge and become visible.
- In complex forms – paralysis of the limbs (mainly lower), the violation of the peritoneum.
Among the deviations in the full development of the body:
- disruption of the brain – hydrocephalus;
- displacement of the medulla to the cervical vertebrae up (leads to a significant speech impairment);
- the underdevelopment of the spinal cord causing scoliosis and other diseases of the spine;
- early sexual development;
- violation of the skin;
- diseases of the vascular system;
- blurred vision.
The Disease is diagnosed in pregnancy with MRI or CT. Conduct other diagnostic procedures. Among them, perforation of the spine of the fetus through the abdominal cavity of the mother for the purpose of intake of a substance in laboratory tests. To recognize the ailment at an early stage of development of the baby helps and ultrasound. Is done and blood biochemistry indicators in determining the presence of disease.
This study is conducted from 16 to 19 weeks of pregnancy in the fair half, in the family which were such anomalies or previously gave birth to babies, patients back affected. As soon as the baby with this diagnosis is born, there is a danger of rupture of the bag wall, in which there is a hernia, and infection of adjacent tissues.
Children diagnosed with spina bifida suffer from pain in the lower back or chest. They have disorders of the locomotor system. Occur incontinence of stool and urine. Deformed spine. About 20% of patients suffer from spinal hernia. Even in a wheelchair they cannot move normally. These children shows the operation for just got the opportunity to socially adapt.
Elimination of the disease and how it can be avoided
The Treatment is carried out at the stage of intrauterine development of the baby. Hernia or other defects are eliminated. But this intervention is done in rare cases. In this way it is possible to avoid the development of hydrocephalus and other anomalies. To move these children an opportunity will be provided subsequent treatment field of birth. The technique is not yet widely used in Russia.
The Most common variant is the elimination of the disease immediately after birth. It is desirable that it occurred as a result of caesarean section. Baby's first operate, and after you start treating. C-section is necessary in order to prevent damage to the spine of the baby during natural birth. The operation is carried out in the first day after birth. Surgeons close the bone defect and the bone marrow remain intact. If the structure of the nerves had been broken, to restore them will fail.
The Main thing is to keep the motor function of the child and the opportunity to carry out important life functions of the body. At the stage of rehabilitation using means to restore after injury: prosthesis, shown therapeutic exercises and physiotherapy.
In some cases, this is especially likely when a woman during pregnancy was not observed in physicians, the disease is found in children accidentally in the course of diagnostics according to the complaints. In this case, the result of the MRI analysis will be a scary diagnosis. The doctors take measures, influencing the spine, in order to prevent damage to the spinal cord. Adults do, only if it is a complication of the disease. In other cases, the therapy is to prevent. Other than physiotherapy, patients wear a special corset.
Often necessary to perform multiple operations across different time intervals. You want to remove cerebrospinal fluid or hernia. It depends on the reaction of the organism to first child earlier intervention. If you still have pain or a deformed spine, surgeons come to the conclusion that the spinal cord, despite all efforts, is fixed and is adjacent to the vertebrae. The patient is doing a new operation.
back bifida Patients and their relatives are concerned about the further life and its usefulness. Social adaptation is possible, according to doctors. The lower centered the dysfunction on the spine, the more favorable the prognosis.
Today, scientists share the opinion that the pathology of the development of the neural tube of the fetus are the most common. As prophylaxis for women who want to have a healthy baby, to think about their health before pregnancy.
The Main thing is the planning. In addition to receiving the essential vitamins (prescribed by a doctor), you need to pay attention to more in-depth examination. Even if the nearest and distant relatives of the woman were not similar pathologies, it is important to receive genetic counseling.
It is Known that medical scientists some time ago learned how to prevent abnormalities of the neural tube of the fetus. The women in the family had such malformations, doctors recommend to pregnant until 3rd trimester to eat a large amount of folic acid. Dosage in each case prescribed by the physician.
In some European countries, folic acid is recommended for all pregnant women without exception. This medicine even got the obligatory list of free drugs issued to expectant mothers. Thus, the frequency of the diseases of infants over the past 5 years has decreased significantly. But in Russia, this method is not practiced.
Women are advised to eat foods with a high content of folic acid: fruits, vegetables, cereals. Rich in this substance: green salad, green vegetables, spinach, parsley and dill, cabbage, black currant, rosehips, raspberries.
Vegetables: beets, peas, carrots, cucumber. Fruit: bananas, apricots, oranges. From animal products: meat, milk, fish. But the saturation of foods rich in vitamin B9, low. The necessary intake of folic acid as a drug on doctor.
Another measure of prevention and information. Woman should know, why you need to take certain medications or vitamins during pregnancy, what foods should be included in the diet to prevent the development of the baby's back is affected.