Principles of first aid and transport of the patient with suspected spinal injury
Injury of the spine leads to unpredictable consequences and often to disability or death. What is important to know and how to provide first aid?
According to statistics, a portrait of the patient with a spinal cord injury is a middle-aged man. In old age affects men and women with equal frequency. Childhood injuries are less common, mostly kin damage.
What are injuries to the spinal column?
the nature of the traumatic factor you can determine what kind of damage is part of injury.
In car accidents and the drivers of motorcycles damaged cervical spine. Is so-called whiplash injury when braking: at first sharp bend, followed by an equally sharp garbage head back. Women have slightly weaker muscles and so often they become victims of a whiplash injury.
Cervical spine injure people who dive carelessly.
Falling from height is the combined fractures of the lower thoracic and pelvic departments. Power sports, lifting weights also contribute to the reasons given for the injuries.
On the localization of the damage are divided into the following: fracture of the cervical spine, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx.
In character: bruises, joint tears, and ligament tears, fractures of the spinous and transverse processes, arches and vertebral bodies, luxation, subluxation, displacement. Clinically important division of injury in uncomplicated and complicated (spinal injury).
The Angle and the power that is directed, give another classification:
- Wedge fracture. Violated the integrity of the shell of a vertebral body. It becomes wedge-shaped. Is treated conservatively.
- Wedge-comminuted. The vertebra are fully damaged and disrupted intervertebral disc. Requires prompt treatment, possibly a complication of spinal cord lesions.
- Pereloma-dislocation. The vertebral body is destroyed. Damaged ligaments, disc. Requires surgical intervention. Possible lesions of the spinal cord.
- Compression. Vertical crack in the vertebral body. Treatment depends on the degree of divergence of bone fragments.
Signs of injury: the patient feels the pain spilled.At the site of injury revealed swelling and bruising, loss of sensation, impaired motor functions.
The Cause of injury may be falling in bad weather, inept diving, car accidents, blunt force trauma.
Symptoms when of distortion (strain) acute pain, restricted movements, can join the phenomenon of sciatica. This injury usually occurs after a sharp lifting of a heavy object.
At dislocations and subluxation of the vertebrae there is a sharp pain, the victim forced position of the head or torso, the movement sharply limited.
Symptoms of fractures and Pereloma-dislocation depend on severity and location of the injury. It's back pain, neck. Muscle cramps, weakness, numbness of hands, feet.
The Victim may have difficulty walking or completely lose the movement of extremities (paralysis).
First aid prehospital
From the first moments when the head injury and spine of the victim to render first aid and be transported to a hospital. Any self-treatment can be dangerous to health and life.
Cautious, she includes several steps:
- place the victim face up on a hard surface, not allow him to sit or to stand;
- fabric roll shaft and gently secure the neck area;
- to carry and keep the body at the same level;
- do not transfer the patient without the need;
- don't leave it unattended;
- to observe the consciousness, pulse and breath;
- immediately call an ambulance or to transport the injured to hospital.
Principles of therapy in hospitals
first aid in the hospital includes: continuous monitoring of heart rate, pressure, introduction of maintenance drugs.
Further treated with immobilization, traction on special devices, corsets, collars.
surgery is conducted with incomplete transverse spinal lesions, with preserved symptoms of nerve root and extensive spinal deformity.
It is Important that the consequences of back injuries are largely determined by the length of time between the moment of trauma prior to treatment. Almost always inadequately provided first aid worsens the disease of the victim. Treatment is difficult, long stage, which employstrauma surgeons, neurosurgeons and rehabilitation therapists. They determine the forecast for later life and his health.
- Selected lectures in traumatology Polyakov V. A. Section: Orthopedics and traumatology. Library www.MEDLITER.ru – electronic medical books.
- Clinical lectures on emergency traumatology Girshin S. G. Section: Orthopedics and traumatology. Library www.MEDLITER.ru – electronic medical books.
- Multiple and combined injuries Sokolov V. A. Section: Orthopedics and traumatology. Library www.MEDLITER.ru – electronic medical books.