Classification of spinal cord injuries, their symptoms, treatment, rehabilitation and consequences
spinal Injuries, their classification, symptoms and treatment methods are the actual problems of medicine. The spine in our body is the Foundation of the musculoskeletal system, it supports the body in a vertical position. Among the back injuries, 10% are injuries to the spinal column, which can have irreversible consequences for human health. If the spinal cord is touched, the position of the injured person dramatically compounded and requires immediate first aid. What are the causes of spinal injury? Damage to the spinal column is possible in various circumstances, often it is:
- drop test
- diving in shallow pools;
- the collapse on the man very heavy;
- traffic accident.
Classification of spinal injuries
The Type and nature of the injury allows to allocate its basic characteristics. Among them are bruises, sprains, fractures arches and vertebral bodies, ruptures and crushing.
The nature of the treatment, rehabilitation period and the degree of recovery is directly dependent on the type of injury.
In the first place distinguish between open and closed injuries. For open injuries is often possible to observe rupture and soft tissue damage. The nature of occurrence of damage are divided into stable and unstable. When unstable disturbances is important to be careful when moving the victim. If the injury is stable, treatment usually brings good results and minimal consequences. Adhering to this classification, it is necessary to highlight the impact of the injury on the spine. It can be simple or complicated. It depends on whether or not affect the spinal cord.
In complicated cases there may be complete or partial dysfunction of the spinal cord. Also injuries are reversible and irreversible. Here isolated radicular syndrome, the damage can be reversible and irreversible.
Peculiarities of the symptomatology of trauma
Often after the incident the patient remains in a state of shock and the sensation of pain is weakened or absent at all. In this case, the victim cannot change the position of the body, so as not to cause misalignment of the damaged vertebra and increase the likelihood of irreversible consequences. First aid is at the scene. In any case of injury of the ridge there is pain, sharp or undulating, and neurological manifestations: numbness in extremities, sometimes loss of consciousness, swelling at the injury site. Upon closer inspection you may notice signs of a hemorrhage. Hazardous conditions include cervical spine injury, in which there are situations that require immediate first aid. It is possible to complete paralysis, impaired respiration and heart rate, often cardiac arrest, a malfunction in the internal organs.
In case of damage in the thoracic region is disturbed motor activity of the upper extremities and the sensitivity of the chest. When you inhale and exhale, the patient will feel pain that radiates into the heart area. Trauma of the lumbar spine is characterized by the weakening of muscle activity, impaired reflexes, functions of the urogenital system, the lack of sensitivity in the lower extremities. Sharp lifting weights repeatedly will cause damage to the lumbar spine. It's a compression injury, which is accompanied by pinching the nerve root and severe pain. The most common symptoms that occur in humans with spinal cord injury:
- emotional arousal, which is accompanied by a feeling of uneasiness;
- nausea, vomiting
- rapid heart rate and failure of respiratory rhythm;
- partial or complete loss of sensation in the limbs
- numbness of various parts of the body and tingling
- loss of consciousness.
Tactics of conducting and treatment of the patient
The Defining aspect in the treatment of spinal cord injuries undoubtedly is the minimum time interval at which the patient was provided with first aid and taken to the intensive care unit.
All methods of treatment after lesions of the spinal cord applied on the basis of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD 10) – a normative document, to ensure a unity in approach and regulated by the who.
spinal Injuries are classified as severe, therefore, their treatment is challenging. Rehabilitation after a spinal injury include the following procedures:
- Treatment in the ICU suggests a further recovery in a rehabilitation center, where comprehensive treatment by specialists.
- If the injury is not complicated by brain involvement, firstmeasure the impact of acts of physical therapy. The initial stage of the exercises from complex breathing exercises, supported by massage and thermal treatments. Next course is complemented by exercises to increase motor activity of the limbs. Depending on the severity of the lesion developed several sets of measures that improve the blood supply and a gradual recovery of motor function. Most often these are the same exercises whose purpose is to distribute load over the entire length of the spine. They can be done during the day, the back muscles gradually become effective.
- In complex injuries with lesions of the spinal cord all of the above measures are supplemented by the administration of drugs, contributing to the restoration of nervous tissue, appointment procedures more profound impact.
Only stable trauma amenable to conservative treatment, which includes massage therapy, conducting thermal treatments, the adherence of mind. Complement this treatment with special exercises designed for patients with certain symptoms. In other cases, surgery is indicated. It is in the production of plates made of metal to reinforce the spine or restore the blood flow. In situations when a particular symptom says about the compressed area of the spinal cord in the place where was damaged vertebra, first aid, the doctor will provide a method of removal of fragmented bone elements and pressure relief. Prevention is a more careful attitude towards their health and minimize traumatic situations. The emergence and development of new approaches in this field of medicine is difficult to overestimate, because spinal injuries often affect the most active part of the population of our planet.