The reasons for development and peculiarities of the rotation of the vertebral bodies
The Rotation of the vertebrae – rotate around the vertical axis of the body without deformation of the anatomical structure. This pathology doctors often scare with the torsion or consider state data synonyms, but morphologically they are different.
Classification of pomodora vertebrae
depending on the causative factor there is a classification for:
Absolute rotation observed in diseases of the spine: scoliosis, spondylosis, ankylosing spondylitis. When degenerative disc disease affects the intervertebral discs, which creates conditions for rotation of the vertebrae in the affected Department. Spondylosis – bone formation of the "spikes" along the lateral parts of the vertebral bodies. When severe illness occurs deposition of calcium salts in the yellow ligament ("stretched" along the entire axis of the spinal column), which leads to immobility of the vertebrae.
Most often, this pathology occurs when the scoliosis – lateral deviation of the axis of the vertebral column.
relative (functional) is a consequence of other diseases of the body. It is often used by polio, when the weakened muscles of the back. In this situation, skeletal muscles cannot support the spine in physiological position. Slowly he bent, and rotation of the vertebrae occurs following the curvature of the vertical axis of the body.
Biomechanical principles of pathology
There are several types of rotations:
- Side (lateroflexion);
The Mechanism of formation of axial rotation in the thoracic spine differs from the analogue in the lumbar spine. The process affects the anatomical difference in the structure of these fields.
The Shape of the spinous process of thoracic vertebrae resembles that of a cylinder with the center in the vertebral body. When you rotate one vertebra relative to another articular processes glide between each other along a single axis. When this intervertebral disc is not displaced (unlike the rotation in the lumbar spine). Due to the fact that the spinous processes are not touching each other, the rib segment can move freely in an arc. His trajectory is 3 times greater than in the lumbar spine.
Limit the amount of movement only of the ribs, which are fixed to the transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae. As a result of axial rotation of vertebrae in the thoracic region leads to stretching of the intercostal muscles and some other changes in the body:
- Increase of the rib curve on the direction of the turn
- flattening of the curvature of the ribs from the back side;
- Increase costochondral bending on the side opposite the lesion.
These symptoms are an indirect sign of the presence of axial rotation in the thoracic region. If pathology persists for a long time, there is a misalignment of the sternum and the disturbance of the heart due to compression when reducing the size of the chest. Consequently, it is very important to treat scoliosis at a young age, when bone-cartilage system is flexible, and the ligaments are not calcium salts are deposited.
What is lateral rotation at lateroflexion
Lateral rotation (if lateroflexion) accompanied by automatic rotation of the vertebrae in opposite directions, if the person long time is in an inclined position. When the person returns to standing position, the vertebrae return to their place. This pathology is often observed in kyphoscoliosis and leads to the appearance of the following symptoms:
- Impairment of the intervertebral disc;
- the tension of the ligaments;
- Asynchronous functioning of the muscle corset back.
Fixed lateral rotation occurs due to incorrect posture, when one part of the body is lowered down and the other raised up. This condition is artificially formed by the students, wearing a heavy briefcase on one shoulder. At a young age, the pathology is exacerbated by rapid growth.
Combined rotation is a condition in which there is opposite rotation of the vertebral bodies in different parts of the spinal column, as well as some displacement of the vertebra in the horizontal plane.
For example, in the cervical spinal column region of the second cervical vertebra (C2) to the first thoracic (Th1) accounts for additional bending load. Any movement in the segment C7-Th1 physiologically characterized by some rotation and lateral tilt. Between the 6th and 7th cervical vertebrae is followed by a further movement of the extension. This combination of movements becomes even more important when driving on cervical Department up. Maximumthe bodies of the vertebrae occur in the lower part, and on top they are more weak.
The Pathogenesis of occurrence of a combined rotation in the neck it is better to explain if we assume that each individual segment of the spine is a joint that allows:
- Bend in the lateral plane;
- Straighten the neck in the sagittal plane (front-back)
- to turn Partly around the circumference.
All these kinds of movements really performs cervical spine, but in the presence of organic or functional causes in joints may block movements and rotation combination.
turn of the vertebral bodies in the lumbar spine
the Rotation of the vertebral bodies in the lumbar spine can be:
Absolute rotation is the most common phenomenon for the lumbar. He has to reduce the shock loads on the spine during movement, lifting of heavy loads.
Anatomically lumbar vertebrae are characterized by large spinous processes (located at the rear of the bodies). When you rotate one of them "clings" is similar to the anatomical formation of the vertebra below. On the one hand, it limits mobility, and leads to a compressive pressure on the intervertebral disc, which over time protrudes into the spinal canal with herniation or protrusion.
The Main symptoms of rotation of the vertebral bodies in the lumbar spine:
- Compression (pain in the lower back, buttocks, legs);
- Myofascial (spasmodic muscle contraction)
- impaired sensation in the lower back and lower extremities.
Thus, this condition is a symptom complex pathology that requires early diagnosis and timely treatment.