Diagnosis, symptoms, causes development 1, 2, 3 degrees of kyphosis
Kyphosis 3 degrees – terrible disease, which in most cases requires surgical intervention. It is characterized by increased physiological curvature in the thoracic spine with an angle of curvature of over 60 degrees (assessed by radiograph in lateral projection).
Types of thoracic kyphosis
Physiological vignette in the thoracic spine is not greater than the angle of 30 degrees. Its purpose is the prevention of infringement of the nerve roots emerging from the thoracic part of the spinal cord, when walking and exercise.
In the external examination of the back in the normal kyphosis is almost invisible to the eye. If the person is observed hump in the upper back, the thoracic kyphosis.
There are 4 degrees of pathology:
- 1 degree – on the radiograph is determined by the angle of bulge in 30-40 degrees (the definition by the method of Cobb);
- 2 degree angle of 40-50 degrees;
- 3 degree angle of 50-70 degrees;
- 4 degree angle more than 70 degrees.
x-ray Assessment of the degree of kyphosis Cobb's method involves conducting tangent lines to the vertebral end plates of the vertebrae (the lower and upper part of the vertebral body) at the levels of the top and bottom of the concavity. These lines are the normals of the inside. In their point of intersection is formed an angle, which is measured with a protractor. He reflects the magnitude of kyphosis.
The above classification is most often used by orthopedic trauma specialists, spine specialists and radiologists, but there is another widespread gradation of degrees of pathology:
- Hyper-kyphosis is the angle of curvature exceeds 50 degrees;
- Normativos – the angle of the concavity is in the range from 15 to 50 degree;
- Hypocites – angle up to 15 degrees.
Causal factor For the concavity in the thoracic region is divided into:
Congenital Hypo - and Hyper-kyphosis is formed due to the abnormal development of the vertebrae. The cleft processes and arches leads to disruption of the anatomical structure of the spinal column. Disturbed physiological angle of the concavity, which leads to time compression syndrome (nerve root entrapment).
Acquired by violation of the values of the kyphotic arc occurs for the following reasons:
- Rachitic – insufficient intake of vitamin D from food the baby causes abnormal development of the spine;
- Infectious tuberculosis and bacterial inflammation of the vertebral bodies leads to their deformation;
- Static – age-related changes in the vertebral segments, the muscle system and bone system;
- Total – is called a serious disease of the entire spine. For example, Bechterew's disease leads to the deposition of calcium salts in ligaments, which interferes with the mobility of the spinal axis.
3 degrees Kyphosis often occurs on the background of the effects of several factors, therefore, conservative methods are ineffective in the treatment of disease.
According to the extent of the current pathology is classified into 2 forms:
- Slowly progressing – during the year, the angle of convexity does not increase more than 7 degrees;
- Rapidly progressive is the angle of kyphosis increases during the year more than 7 degrees.
depending on the localization of the vertices of the arc are the following types of disease:
- Cervical-thoracic – peak at the lower cervical (C5-C7) and upper thoracic vertebrae (Th1-Th2);
- Thoracic – the top of the arc between the Th3-Th6;
- Mesothoracic upper part of the bulge is localized between Th7 segments-Th9;
- lower thoracic – level Th10-Th11;
- Thoracolumbar localization Th12-L1;
- Lumbar – apex of kyphosis is located at the level L2-L5.
Causes pathological changes
Excessive concavity in the thoracic region of the vertebral column in most cases is caused by weakening of the muscle corset back and pathology of the musculoskeletal system.
On the background of insufficient physical activity, lack of dietary calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, protein, vitamins and minerals in children it is difficult to expect the formation of physiological spinal axis. Almost to 20 years there is a transformation of cartilage into bone of the vertebrae. In the subsequent growth of the spine stops.
Features of modern ecology and the failure of "spinal hygiene" leads to kyphosis of 1 degree is found today almost every 2 children. Hygiene of the spine requires constant monitoring of the correctness of posture, the principles of sitting on a chair, behind a school Desk, daily dosed physical load.
In adults, kyphosis degree 2 is a consequence of degenerative changes in the spinal column and musclesystem. Lack of nutrients, impaired peripheral circulation and inadequate physical activity leads to increased severity of the thoracic concavity of the spine with formation of a round back and spinal column.
The Stoop – surplus minimum degree of convexity in the thoracic region of the spinal column. The spinal hump is characterized by the presence of pronounced peaks kyphotic thoracic bulge posteriorly.
In the elderly the cause of strengthening the lumbar and thoracic concavity, convexity is often a consequence of diseases of the joints of the lower limbs (arthrosis) and dislocation of the femoral head.
depending on the time of occurrence of the disease is divided into:
- Infant – kyphosis 1 extent found in the age of 1 year. He is not fixed, therefore, disappears when laying baby on stomach
- Children's – found in children of school age;
- Youth and adolescent – often develops following an illness of Chairman Mau;
- Adult – is observed on the background of injuries or degenerative changes to the vertebral column.
The Disease Chairman Mau – curvature of the spine that appear in adolescents (11-15 years) and characterized by the presence of more than 3 wedge-shaped vertebrae.
In adolescents the degree of kyphosis progresses faster than in adults, which is associated with the accelerated growth of the spine at a young age.
Symptoms depending on the severity of
The Most common symptoms of pathological kyphosis:
- Pain in upper back
- Numbness in the extremities (2 and 3 degree of pathology);
- Weakness of the hands.
The symptoms associated with nerve root entrapment, but if the kyphosis is 1 the degree may not be.
Danger and complications pathology:
- respiratory failure
- Instability of the cardiovascular system;
- Pathology of digestion.
These symptoms appear due to violation of the mobility and displacement of the thorax.
The Main complaints of people with this pathology associated with pain in the interscapular region and back pain. However, abnormal convexity of the 1st degree is asymptomatic.
At 2 or 3 degrees of pathology can be observed neurological manifestations:
- Early – pain in the chest;
- Late – severe pain and numbness in the hands. Occurs when the development of degenerative disc disease or disease Forestier.
Forestier Disease – lesion of the thoracic spine with increased convexity of the spinal column in the thoracic region and a pronounced concavity in the lumbar spine and joint disease of the cervical spine.
On the severity of the neurological manifestations of the disease is divided into the following degrees:
- A – complete loss of sensation and movement
- B – saved sensitivity with the loss of mobility;
- C – motion is saved, but the functional activity is not observed;
- D – fully preserved mobility;
- E – no neurological symptoms.
Kyphosis of 1 degree is characterized by no clinical symptoms, but it is important to identify the disease in this stage to successfully heal.