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Hernia different spinal segments – causes, symptoms, and signs


The Sudden pain in the back causes a person to accept a situation in which is made the minimum movements. It looks like he froze in an unnatural pose. This condition and feeling strong pains force the patient to contact the medical institution. At the hospital the specialist will first make the assumption that the patient has inter disc herniation of the spine.

herniated disc

Intervertebral hernia: what is it?

The Spine is designed by nature design of the vertebrae between which are discs in the form of rings, consisting of fibrous tissue. They provide a cushioning effect for the bone joints and mobility of the spine. Changes in the disc leading to the formation of defects in the structure of the ring, showing the prolapse of the inner core of the intervertebral space. At first it may just be a disc protrusion or bulging, and soon, the possible rupture of the fibrous ring.

Intervertebral hernia in the defect of the annulus fibrosus – this is the standard outcome of a similar situation. The problem of emergence of hernia can occur anywhere in the intervertebral disc space. In each case symptoms of the disease depend on which place there is a hernia and what is a herniated vertebra (kind of) a patient.

Illustration of the hernia of the spine

Causes of herniated discs

The Reasons of occurrence of defects of the intervertebral spaces are very diverse. A qualified specialist will try to find the causal relationship which have arisen vertebral hernia.

  1. degenerative disc disease

Degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc (osteochondrosis) is a frequent cause of hernia is formed vertebra. Degeneration of cartilage with the development of osteochondropathy occurs due to improper lifestyle, although without a genetic predisposition changes in the discs of the spine are quite rare.

what develops osteochondrosis:

  • genetically determined predisposition;
  • disorders in metabolism and obesity;
  • lack of movement in the right quantity;
  • severe physical exertion and prolonged static immobility;
  • problems with musculoskeletal disorders (flat feet, scoliosis, trauma);
  • age-related changes in the context of unhealthy eating and lack of food necessary micronutrients.

In light of these factors a person acquires a pathology of the intervertebral cartilage. Herniation of the vertebrae with degenerative lesions of the disc only a matter of time.

  1. the Curvature of the spine

depending on how the spine and sent to the warping: forward, backward, or sideways, there are lordosis, kyphosis and scoliosis. Matters, and which spine is involved, as expressed in a stage process. When expressed forms of changes of spine conditions appear to have formed the herniated discs.

  1. spinal Injury

A herniated disc can occur after any traumatic injury of the spine. Most expressed the trauma in professional sport, in terms of hard work, in everyday situations, when a person leads too active a life. Moreover, are important not only serious injuries, but minor and frequent microtrauma, which contribute to the malnutrition of cartilage and gradually weaken it.

  1. spinal Tumors

Herniation of the spine at the location of the tumor occurs due to the destruction of disks. This process is not fast, but inevitable. Any tumor that creates a lot of conditions to first form a small protrusion, and after a few years and pronounced intervertebral hernia, when there is strong pain.

  1. Infection

Some chronic infections, such as tuberculosis, cause inflammatory responses in the intervertebral space that destroys cartilage. Hernia in this case occurs almost always.

  1. contributing factors

In Addition to the important reasons resulting in pathology, hernia of the spine is formed due to certain lifestyle and in terms of unusual effects on the spine. It can be triggered by the following factors:

  • heavy physical work (which is due to physiological characteristics of the human body, the main burden always falls on the back)
  • sudden and unusual changes of position of a body, as a result of sports;
  • exposure to stressful situations;
  • prolonged immobility, when a person sits on the workplace.

Symptoms and signs of spinal hernia

neurologist at the reception can see the first signs of spinal pathology. In particular, the herniated discshows itself by the following features:

  1. Flag position

Due to the presence of pain, the person will be in an unnatural position, which the doctor can easily see. This protective response of the body when there is a hernia of vertebrae, reaching a size of 8-11 mm: frozen in a forced position, a sick man tries to prevent the return of severe pain.

  1. Reflex muscle contraction

Signs of spinal hernias can be expressed in inadequate contraction of the muscles. This is especially noticeable when viewed from the back, when the broad dorsal muscle from one side is constantly in high tone, and relaxed. It is also a protective reaction symptoms: muscle response that prevents movement of the body and the return of pain.

  1. Weakness in limbs

Symptoms of herniated disc a doctor may suggest how the patient walks. Unusual muscle weakness in the extremities will cause a sick person to walk with difficulty, that at times looks like he is dragging his feet. It is intermittent and happens when the protrusion of the intervertebral disc increases in size to 8 mm and more, squeezing the exit of the spinal nerves. However, the size of the lesion of 5-6 mm can also cause muscle weakness.

  1. disruption of the functioning of the pelvic organs

When intervertebral hernia is large (up to 11 mm) or in the case of the localization of small hernias (5 or 6 mm) in the foraminal openings, it may be urinary incontinence or violation of defectie.

the Main complaints of patients

In a survey of the patient, the doctor will pay close attention to complaints because they give almost complete picture of the disease:

  1. Pain

hernia causes a lot of pain, which can suggest the location of the hernial education, its value and the phase of the process. Attentive doctor will note the following:

  • if the patient complains of moderate pain in my back on top of that give in the arm, may result in cervical or thoracic spine;
  • if strong pain is more pronounced in the lower back and radiating pain (spread) in the leg, then one should think that there is a hernia of the lumbar vertebra;
  • the severity of pain is proportional to the size of the hernial education: if a size of about 8 mm or 11 mm is approaching, the pain will be most intense;
  • power back pain depends on the stage of the process: if the patient has prolapse or only a slight protrusion of up to 5 mm, the pain may not be at all;
  • severe protrusion and hernia of the vertebral value up to 8-11 mm will always be accompanied by severe pain.
  1. TOOOhe Inability to move for fear of pain amplification

A Sick person tries not to move at all, and the reason is simple: he's afraid that any movement would increase the pain. Involuntarily tensing the muscles of the back, he stiffens in a protective pose, as if it could rid him of the problem.

  1. Unusual sensations in the limbs

The Herniated disc, which compressed the nerve roots, causes a variety of sensations in the extremities. It can be tingling, the feeling of running and needles, numbness.

  1. Change the “chair” of urination and genital function

A Hernia in the place of articulation of the two last lumbar vertebrae and sacrum leads to compression of spinal nerves, provides the functions of pelvic organs. This is observed when large amounts of hernial defect (8-11 mm) or small (5-6 mm), but in prolapse foraminal openings. The patient will complain of problems with urine, and the presence of discomfort with defecation. In addition, male patients significantly reduced potency, and women lacking libido.

To determine the exact location of hernial formation, the doctor will schedule additional tests. After verifying the location, size and stage of the pathological process it is possible to make a diagnosis and begin treatment intervertebral hernia.