Types, symptoms, causes tumors in the coccyx area
Invisible coccyx, when pain can become the center of attention. In a healthy condition four to five fused vertebrae almost motionless serve for the attachment of several important muscles of the perineum and gluteus Maximus.
Thanks to this "design" we bend our hip, we distribute the load on the pelvis in a sitting position, can do some other movements and to control urination and emptying of the colon. The coccyx can be called a vestige, if only to forget about all these functions.
The Malaise of the tailbone can knock out of the rut. If the itching and pain in the buttocks a lot of inconvenience and spoil the life, painful swelling to the range of experiences adds to the fear.
Types of tumors on the tailbone
Agree that the tumor we will call not just swelling after injury, as expressed by the neoplasm with characteristic features. Some of them occur in adulthood, others can be detected on the body of the fetus in the womb.
To congenital tumors doctors include:
- spina bifida
- sacrococcygeal teratoma
- of epithelial coccygeal cyst.
In adults, the tumor may appear at the site of the hematoma, when chordoma and cancer of bones and nearby organs.
On the 9th week of pregnancy, when should be formed spinal cord may occur incomplete closure of the neural tube. The defect leads to abnormal formation of the vertebrae.
The newborn with spina bifida hypoplastic vertebral arch in the area from the waist to the coccyx, and there may be protrusion of the spinal cord at this site.
Spina bifida most often occurs in children of white race. Birth defect more likely to occur in pairs:
- where at least one spouse has spina bifida
- having children with spina bifida
- with diabetes, influenza;
- receiving anticonvulsants;
- survived a dioxin poisoning
- where is the old mother.
There are three degrees of necromania arches of the spine:
- hidden nonunion (Spina bifida occulta) – a defect in the back is missing;
- meningocele – meninges covered by skin and looks like a bag;
- myelomeningocele (Spina bifida cystica) is a cerebral hernia protrudes, the condition is accompanied by paralysis of the limbs, dysfunction of the bowel and bladder.
first event, the patient can learn about the nonunion of the arches by accident – passing beam diagnostics for a different reason. Accurate statistics for the disease is absent. The doctors say that only one of the thousands of diagnosed patients with nonunion of the hidden arches of the spine may suffer back pain, weakness of leg muscles, or scoliosis.
the Second variant of the disease – heavier and rarer. Its symptoms are: solid, arachnoid and the Pia mater beyond the spine and into the crevice. They can be placed in the fold under the buttock skin. By the looks of it a small bulge, elastic and fixed to the touch. The tumor was successfully treated surgically. The neurosurgeon closes the cleft bone.
the Third form spina bifida occurs in 75% of cases of congenital defect. His symptoms first described 4,000 years ago.
A Bag of myelomeningocele has a noticeable size. Under the skin is the spinal cord, spinal column left. If you do not correct the defect, there is a disability.
The Successful outcome of operations for closure of cleft of the third degree became possible only after the discovery of antibiotics. Babies with myelomeningocele operated in the first 48 hours of life. Science seeks to make the correction of the spine the fetus in the womb.
Studies conducted in 1990 in the Ukraine, have proved that taking folic acid or products containing it, reduces the risk of having a child with spina bifida by 70% (Rivne University, lectures on genetics, I. M. Trofymchuk).
sacrococcygeal (sacrococcyx) teratoma
This congenital tumor is more common in girls (ratio 4:1). Its contents may be different from dermoid cysts to reduced or rudimentary organs of the fetus. Cysts may be filled with serous fluid or sebaceous material. The length of the tumor is within 30 cm, and the width is 8 cm.
Teratoma in half of the cases are incompatible with life. Ripening fruit in the vicinity of the tumor leads to malformations of the heart, kidneys, rectum, bladder and urethra, the dislocation of the hip. A large mass of tumor tissue requires increased blood supply. The formation of a network of blood vessels in it increases cardiac output and contributes to the development of heartfailure.
sacrococcygeal teratoma diagnosed in the 22nd week of pregnancy. If a tumor is removed with its contents by perinatal puncture. Modern technologies allow to do intrauterine radiofrequency ablation of teratomas and monitor the process of ultrasound.
If before delivery the tumor in the area of the coccyx is not removed, then the fetus is removed by cesarean section. This helps to prevent teratoma rupture. Surgery to remove tumors is performed immediately after birth. Resection is exposed and a portion of the coccyx.
If histologic examination reveals malignant cells, we administered radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
Epithelial (dermoid) cyst of the coccygeal
One of the congenital malformations is considered coccygeal dermoid cyst (epithelial coccygeal course of the field). Modern scholars question the most fully studied by V. L. Rivkin.
A Feature of this defect is that up to the adult age, he remains unnoticed. Problems in patients, mostly men, occur after 18 years. In the area of the coccyx is formed swelling, and later develops a tumor.
Symptoms of dermoid cyst:
- openings in the buttock crease
- along the spine between the buttocks can be felt at first itching;
- in the supine position or when you long seat coccyx hurts;
- using the moves on the surface of the pus or infiltration.
In the first stage the disease is asymptomatic. For the second stage is characterized by moments of acute inflammation with the formation of abscesses. In chronic form of inflammation periods alternating with remission.
The Danger is that the channel of the abscess can go into the rectum with the formation of a fistula. When diagnosing this fact determines the finger study of the rectum.
Location of channel formation is particularly sore. Even if the abscess breaks through to the outside, a person experiences severe condition with increasing temperature. Regardless of the location of the abscess is suppuration of the tissues may lead to sepsis.
sacrococcygeal Dermoid cyst is treated exclusively surgically. The best time – the period of remission. TOOOhe Tumor was completely excised, after staining all tracts.
The difficulty of the operation consists in suturing the site of a large area. To prevent suture line disruption, the patient is advised to refrain from sitting position for 2-3 weeks.
Swelling after hematoma
A Fall on the coccyx often leads to the formation of hematoma. Long injury hurts, and instead of bluish spots formed a small tumor. It may be the cause of the suppuration of hematoma or callus formation. In place of cracked or broken tailbone may also be collected pathological contents.
In each case, the formation of cysts in the area of hematoma require surgical intervention to clean the capsule of the tumor.
Chordomas is called a benign tumor of the sacrum and the coccyx, formed by the cartilage cells. It is formed during embryonic development and makes itself known after 50 years. Chordoma destroys bone.
Science has limited information about the causes of tumors, as the cases of the disease are very rare. It is known that men suffer more often from chordoma.
Externally, chordoma appears as a node on the coccyx. It has a solid capsule and a lot of departments with dead plots.
The Growth of the tumor leads to:
- pain in the coccyx area;
- dysfunction of the bladder and rectum;
- difficulty in walking.
the Diagnosis of "chordoma" is confirmed in all types of radiologic examination, biopsy and histological examination of the cyst content.
The Tumor is removed the surgical method. In view of the purity of education radiation therapy and chemotherapy is not prescribed. If chordoma resection was incomplete, relapses of the disease. Have to do a re-resection.
Malignant tumor in the area of the coccyx are often the result of the spread of metastasis from other organs. Very rare cases of degeneration of bone cells.
On the spine tumors are localized the following:
- chondrosarcoma – develops from cartilage cells. It is most common among people over 40 years of age;
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma develops in the soft tissues surrounding bone, including muscle, ligaments, tendons and fat cells. Common in patients aged 50-60 years.
The Tumor is palpable as an excrescence on the bone. The symptoms of cancer are:
- pain in the tumors;
- increased temperature
- sudden weight loss.
The Diagnosis is established after clinical examination of the patient, an x-ray, biopsy of the bone. In some cases, replace x-rays magnetic resonance (MRI), computer (CT) or positron emission tomography (PET).
Treatment of tumor will depend on the stage of cancer spread. Most often offered surgery followed by radiation or chemotherapy. Later, to monitor the condition of the bone, will have to regularly do x-rays.
- F. G. Uglov, A. R.Mursalova "Teratomas sacrococcyx the field" (1959).
- B. E. Strelnikov "Epithelial cysts of the sacrococcygeal region" (1962).