Causes, signs and treatment of injuries and spinal cord injuries
spinal Trauma refers to serious damage, as its consequence may be disability or death. the Number of patients with damage to the spinal cord and spinal column start to grow rapidly. This is due to the increasing number of vehicles, development of high-rise construction, the popularity of extreme sports and other factors, which can receive serious injuries.
To injure the spinal cord, which is well protected by surrounding tissues, it is necessary to apply strong mechanical impact. The most common causes that lead to damage of the spine and spinal cord, include:
- Road traffic accident. To become a participant of the accident, as a bus passenger or pedestrian. In a head-on collision 2 cars often happen whiplash injury. They arise due to forced tilting of the head followed by a sudden bending of the neck forward or, on the contrary, when the head leans forward sharply, and then leans back. Thus, the damaged cervical spine.
- Falling from a great height. Fracture of the spine, combined with spinal cord injury, usually occurs if the person falls on an object having a narrow body. If the result of the falling man lands on his feet, as a rule, the spinal column is damaged in several places at once.
- Jumping into the water. The consequence of the jump can be a trauma of the cervical spine. Hit his head on a hard surface or an object floating in the water, additionally, can cause serious traumatic brain injury.
- Firearms, explosives and knife wounds.
- Birth injury. Is caused by abnormal labor. Cause of injury the spinal cord the child can be medical malpractice, large fetus, abnormal fetal development, a wrong presentation (breech or transverse), a narrow maternal pelvis or pathology as a result of earlier trauma or illness.
Types of injuries
The injury may be closed or open type, that is a violation of the integrity of the skin or without it.
Injuries of the spine:
- Rupture or stretching of the tissues of the ligamentous apparatus.
- vertebral Fractures. They can be compression, comminuted, explosive, boundary, horizontal and vertical.
- Injury to the intervertebral discs.
- Subluxation, dislocations or a dislocation.
- Displacement of vertebras forwards or backwards relative to the normal axis of the spine (spondylolisthesis).
spinal cord Injury:
- partial or complete rupture.
Symptoms of pathology
The Symptoms of spinal cord injury characterized regarding the details of the injury and the place of its localization.
Spinal injury and spinal cord can impair motor, sensory and visceral-autonomic processes of the body.
Typical signs that indicate damage to the spinal cord:
- a Feeling of tightness or pain in chest and back.
- Partial or complete loss of sensation in the body. Tingling in the fingers of the upper and lower limbs.
- lack of coordination of movements.
- decreased muscle tone or immobility of the body.
- Trouble breathing or a complete stop.
- the Formation of edemas and hematomas.
- Loss of control of pelvic organs (incontinence of urine and feces, or, conversely, urinary retention and constipation).
- Spinal shock. Below the place of injury in humans lacking all reflexes and sensitivity. Such injury may be reversible or irreversible.
spinal cord Injury in neonates also differ in severity. In case of serious injuries the child may die while in childbirth or shortly after birth. Due to the fact that the spinal cord in babies less stretchy than ligaments and spine, it can be easily damaged. In newborns most often the crashes occur in niinesalu or upper cervical spine. Worth noting: the child can lead to a complete break of the spinal cord, thus compromising the integrity of the vertebrae does not occur. This pathology not visible on x-ray.
Birth injury to the spinal cord rarely is accompanied by a displacement of vertebrae or fractures of the spine.
The Spinal cord in the process of childbirth can be damaged anywhere, but most commonly affected are the cervical spine. Because of the pain the child is restless. It may be a lengthening, the shortening of the neck or torticollis. The child canto present the signs of spinal shock, edema, change in muscle tone, breathing problems, disorders of pelvic organs, trophic changes of muscles and bones, changes in motor and reflex reactions.
When massive bleeding, the prognosis is unfavourable – the child dies.
Treatment will depend on the severity of the disease. In mild injuries are assigned a conservative method of treatment involves bed rest, taking anti-inflammatory, restorative and painkillers.
Damage to the spinal cord, which is accompanied by its tightness, instability vertebral-motor segment and other severe types of damage, subject to surgical treatment. During the operation attempts to restore the normal anatomic structure of the spinal cord and spine. Next, the patient will have a long rehabilitation course.
The Severity of the injury, untimely medical aid, infectious-inflammatory complication, a violation of doctor's recommendations in the process of rebuilding and so on – all this has an impact on the further condition of the victim.