Facial nerve paralysis: possible causes, symptoms and features of treatment
facial nerve paralysis, also called palsy, is a disease of the nervous system that may occur unexpectedly and develop in just a couple of days. Because of such problems on the face of the man there is asymmetry, that is, one part of the face begins to SAG. The sight of this, of course, unpleasant.
Reasons why you may receive this disease can have an infectious nature, when they were affected by respiratory tract, besides, it occurs when a sudden contraction of the muscles. What provoked such a spasm, we need to understand the attending physician. It is possible that this may be a consequence of surgery that was performed on the jaw or ear. As for children, the problem with the face may occur as a reaction to the migrated ear infection, the flu or even the presence in the body of the herpes virus. By the way, paresis of the facial nerve in the newborn is observed in most cases for exactly this reason, especially if the mother during pregnancy was negligent in the preventive examination and the submission of all required tests.
Paresis and paralysis can be treated completely only if people noticed the problem and asked for help from a specialist.
General concepts about pathology
This problem actually occurs quite frequently. Paralysis does not choose age or gender, so Dating and women, and men, and children.
the Facial nerve is part of the system, which is responsible for motor and sensory activity of muscles. When paralysis nervous impulses can not fully pass all the way, may not have enough of their volume, causing facial muscles are not in full tone as it should be.
In addition, this nerve is responsible for innervation of the salivary and lacrimal glands, sensation of taste and the sensitivity of the fibers of the upper layer entity.
This disease attacks only one nerve branch, so distorted grimace is observed only on one side of the face. If time does not carry out the treatment course which will include special exercises and massage, and exercises for the face, it can trigger the development of tumors. This is especially true of children, because it can lead not only to a specific appearance, but also cause hearing loss and even significant vision loss.
If the patient has the disease is still at an easy stage, it's easy enough to fix just a massage.
Classification of paresis
Before you can treat the fever, you need to install it. There are two types of the disease:
- Peripheral paresis of the facial nerve. This kind of occurs most often. It begins with severe pain in the ears, or rather behind them. He attacks only one side of the face, and if to carry out the palpation, you will clearly feel how weak the muscles. The peripheral form is usually the consequence of inflammatory processes that cause swelling of nerve fibers, and those, in turn, are narrowed. Therefore, nerve impulses can no longer travel freely across the face. In medicine, peripheral paralysis called bell's palsy.
- Central paresis of the facial nerve. This form is much rarer, but is much heavier. The fact that this disease is atrophy of the lower muscles of the face, making the forehead and eyes are not distorted, but everything below the nose can SAG. In this case the patient loses the ability to distinguish tastes. On palpation, the physician notes that the muscles are in a state of stress. Central paresis may be bilateral. This disease results from a leaky lesions of neurons in the brain.
- Congenital paresis. Paresis of the facial nerve in the newborn is encountered only in 10% of all reported cases. If the disease is mild or moderate form, the child is prescribed a course of special massage and gymnastics. But in severe extent operable without interference is indispensable. Parents need to know that congenital palsy has similarities with a congenital anomaly of the facial nerve (möbius syndrome), when in the body, but problems with the person who observed lesions and other nerve branches.
This unpleasant situation with a person may occur due to several reasons:
- Primary paresis may occur on the back of strong overcooling the entire face or only one part of the head. The main root cause of this disease is the upper respiratory tract. People can SuperCool, if you long to sit under the air conditioner. The same goes for trips to transport the open window.
- Paresis may develop on the background of otogenous neuropathy, when the nerve affected by this unpleasant disease, as otitis media. Otogenny neuropathy can be a result of and operations, when during surgery the nerve was affected.
- Lessjust a paresis develops from the herpes virus, tuberculosis, syphilis, mumps, and polio. This is the rarest reason.
- Neuropathy of the facial nerve can be caused by improper circulation in the face. This problem has a high risk of symptoms in persons with coronary heart disease, individuals who suffer from high blood pressure, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis.
In Addition to all these reasons, such a problem can occur during dental procedures.
In any case, in order to conduct a successful treatment and to massage and gymnastics ended with a positive result, the patient required highly skilled help. Therefore, without a visit to the doctor can not do.
Symptoms and treatment
The Facial nerve is responsible for motor activity of the muscles of the face, i.e. The branches of man has facial expressions. Unless the nerve impulse, then this will be reflected in the lack of facial movements.
The disease can be in acute stage (up to 14 days) or subacute (up to 30 days). If in the first month, the patient failed using facial gymnastics and other activities to get rid of this disease, he will transform into a chronic form.
Paresis of the facial nerve with a person will begin to occur as follows:
- nasolabial fold will start smoothing out;
- on the affected side of the face corner of mouth will start to fall down;
- of the affected eye will not completely close, there will remain a small strip of sclera visible;
- eyes open is too open;
- the patient may cease to distinguish the flavours, especially the first third of the tongue;
- mucosa may be dry or, on the contrary, strongly to start slezotechenii, and the excretion of fluids especially activated in the process of chewing and swallowing food;
- from the affected part from the corner of the mouth will flow the saliva, the same applies to the time of drinking fluid or eating foods;
- asking the patient to make lips "tube", it will not perform, the same applies to requests frowning;
- when the primary form of this disease may exacerbate the hearing, which the patient will become hard to perceive very loud sounds.
Before will manifest the main symptoms of paresis, a person can feel a sharp pain in the parotid region, which can serve as a direct signal about the development of the disease.
As for treatment, here a crucial role is played by the timely treatment of people for help. It is worth noting that the chronic form almost incurable, so the asymmetry of the face will remain forever.
If the patient asked with mild or moderate neuralgia, the treatment can take up to six months. All treatment includes several activities:
- taking medication
- multiple sessions of physical therapy;
- doing exercises and massages.
Recent activities easily carried out at home. But all procedures and medications should be taken under the supervision of a doctor.
But let's look at each stage of treatment in more detail:
- the medication is assigned to stop the inflammatory process, relieve swelling and help the affected nerve cells to start regeneration.
For relief of pain syndrome are used by pill or injection: "Katoro", "Spazgan", "Baralgin", "Furosemide" and "Triampur".
If a patient is diagnosed with moderate or severe paresis, the patient is prescribe corticosteroids. To treatment using drugs that improve blood vessels: "Komplamin" or drug, which in its composition include nicotinic acid. It is important to use and of course b vitamins.
during treatment it is important to monitor the psychological state of a patient. So if necessary the specialist may prescribe the intake of sedatives.
Surgery is prescribed only if the patient has detected the gap of the nerve. But the effect is achieved only if the break occurred and it was discovered in the first year. If not, the facial muscles gradually atrophy, and then the patient will not be able to control their facial expressions.
- physical Therapy involves the use of special lamps, ultrasound, phonophoresis, and paraffin.
A Sequence of such events is determined by the stage of the disease. If something does not help, your doctor may adjust activities.
special attention is given exercises. The fact that the massage better on their own do not do, and to entrust it to the hands of a professional. But as for exercises, here the situation is somewhat simpler. Exercises aimed at the recovery of the facial nerve. It can be an exercise for the eyebrows (up-down), the chest-thumping, warm-up of the lips, eye movement and so on. Such exercises can be freely performed several times a day.
Of how the patient carefully performs all the instructions given by your doctor and will depend on the success of recovery.