Osteoporosis in women – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
A woman's Life after 50 years of gaining height. Children and adults confidence in themselves as skilled professionals give optimism. However, health problems did not always give enjoy a new day.
every second woman after menstruation occur the symptoms of osteoporosis.
The Symptoms and can be detected only when there are complications. Pregnancy is also a risk of developing the disease, the signs of which are already noticeable in the second trimester.
It is Known that 10 years after the extinction of the reproductive ability and discontinuation of estrogen by the ovaries bone volume in women is reduced by 30%. This means that washed out from the bones calcium and other minerals, it remains only a skeleton of organic substances, which is very fragile.
let's find out the causes of the disease, first signs, main symptoms, and diagnosis and treatment.
How does the development of the disease
The Hormone estrogen is produced by the glandular tissue of the ovaries. Estrogen is a hormone young women. It makes the skin smooth, giving it tone, provides reproductive function, and regulates the flow of calcium in bones, making them strong and durable.
After menopause, the estrogen already has no effect on the bone tissue. Some amount of female hormones produced by the adrenal glands, but not enough to stop the development of osteoporosis.
A Total deficit of estrogen and reduction of calcium causes thinning and brittle bones in women. Bone cells called osteoblasts are not capable of producing the required volume interosseous substances that build new bone to replace the old parts. While their opponents osteoclasts, on the contrary, reproduce, become stronger and actively sucking on the bone tissue.
resulting In formation of numerous pores. Their diagnosis on the radiograph is simple – they look like a mesh. Hence the name osteoporosis: osteo – bone, porous – pores.
Numerous make the pores of the bone structure is unstable to stress. Hit by a falling can end in a fracture. In severe stage of osteoporosis in some women's bones break without any load. These fractures are called pathological. Treatment is complicated by their total lack of calcium in the body and decreased reparative capacity.
- in Addition to menopause bone loss can lead to artificial castration, ie removal of the ovaries in women, which could still give birth.
- Long-term treatment of any disease glucocorticoid drugs. Adrenal hormones are antagonists of estrogen in relation to metabolism in bone tissue. Therefore, long-term use of steroids must be added into the treatment program of calcium.
- thyroid Disease.
- Disease of the parathyroid glands. These glands produce a hormone called calcitonin. Under normal conditions, it regulates the supply of bone calcium. Signs of osteoporosis allow the suspect disease glands. The drug calcitonin should in this case be taken for life.
- Smoking and drinking alcohol not only do not paint a woman, but also contribute to the development of chronic diseases, including osteoporosis.
- Disease of the intestine. Chronic colitis, enzymatic insufficiency interfere with the absorption of calcium in the blood are the cause of the disease, the symptoms of which include resorption of bone.
The Symptoms of osteoporosis depend on the stage of the disease.
The First phase is for a woman discreetly. There are no complaints, but the process that destroys the bone, is already underway.
The First symptoms appear as pain in the spine and extremities, strong fatigue during prolonged walking. The pain occurs after prolonged sunbathing, especially between the shoulder blades and lower back.
With the progression of the disease starts to hurt the spine, the pain does not get better alone. There is a violation of posture, scoliosis often. Growth decreases by a few centimeters. For comparison, I usually take the growth in women at the age of 40.
In severe and advanced untreated cases of osteoporosis occurs deformity of the spine, there is a hump, growth is reduced more than on 10 see Often happen pathological fractures, typically femoral neck breaks. This is the most vulnerable part of the skeletal system because of the characteristics of blood circulation, and high load.
How osteoporosis affects pregnancy
Pregnancy increases the need of the organism for calcium. And its deficiency affects the child.
Causes of osteoporosis include changes of estrogen level and reduced calcium, especially in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The symptoms include pain in the back, pelvis and knees. Diagnosis and treatment of pregnant women is difficult, because here the main thing not to harm the fetus.
Diagnosis and treatment of pathology
As already mentioned, the diagnosis of osteoporosis in its early stages is clinically impracticable. For this purpose, special methods of investigation. In this regard, well-proven densitometry. Both ultrasonic and radiographic methods are informative.
To determine the bone density, it helps to analyze a certain part of the body – the spine, hip, heel, or even toe – and the result is ready. Bone loss up to 5% can be determined using this method.
The Restoration of bone tissue is achieved by both medication and the conduct and organization of several events.
non-pharmacological treatment includes moderate exercise, a healthy diet and lifestyle, getting rid of bad habits.
- Physical activity cures pains in the bones. Of course, not every woman over 50 wants to go to the gym and exercise, although it is recommended. However, Hiking can afford any. Enough to walk 1-2 miles not only Strengthen bones, but will courage and good humor.
- Power should be balanced, the diet must contain vitamin D. It is found in fish, eggs, milk, sour cream, nuts. If it is insufficient, on the recommendation of a doctor, you can take fish oil capsules. However, vitamin D can't be too careful. Its overdose can be dangerous.
Women in menopause healthy products containing vegetable analogue of estrogen. The phytoestrogens contained in soy, green.
- If a diagnosis of osteoporosis has already set, you need to organize your life in such a way as not to injury and fracture. For an overnight stay it is better to choose an orthopedic mattress. Its hard surface will not allow the spine to deform.
The Treatment of osteoporosis – the process is long and difficult. No doctor will give an absolute guarantee of cure, because it depends on many factors: heredity, underlying diseases, the exact observance of all doctor's instructions.
- For women the main method of treatment is estrogen therapy. Due to the substitution of artificial estrogen in the body recovering the balance between the bone cells, increasing bone mass, decreasing the risk of heart disease.
estrogen Therapy cures the disease in women who underwent removal of the ovaries. To reduce the risk of cancer have been established drugs that combine estrogen with progesterone. They are made by cycle, well tolerated.
However, one side effect is the return of menstruation. Many women because of this refuse to take these drugs.
- calcitonin Drug cures osteoporosis at an early stage.
- Also used bisphosphonates. Prescribe them to women who refused estrogen therapy.