What is paresis and paralysis, what's the difference between them in the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment?
Paresis and paralysis is a pathological violation of motor functions of the human body. For paralysis is characterized by the loss of these functions, whereas the paresis observed only weakening them. But both of the syndrome is caused by the development of various pathological processes of the nervous system that disrupt the structure of the motor analyzer.
Symptoms of paralysis and paresis
This syndrome, paresis or paralysis may affect any group of muscles. For example, pathology:
- facial nerve causes a lesion of the facial muscles;
- hypoglossal nerve – dysfunction of the muscles of the tongue;
- phrenic nerve – diaphragmatic lesions of the muscle groups.
But usually the terms “paralysis” and “paresis” are used to define lesions of the muscles of the extremities.
Only distinguish 5 different kinds of paresis. These include:
- Monoparesis (monoplegia) – loss of one limb, accompanied by violation of its arbitrary functions.
- Paraparesis (paraplegia) – fresh lesions of the lower or upper limbs with subsequent violation of their arbitrary functions.
- Hemiparesis (hemiplegia) – a simultaneous lesion of the hands and feet, but with one side of the body.
- Tripres (triplegia) – defeat three of the limbs of a person.
- Tetraparesis (tetraplegia) – loss of all limbs of the patient.
These dysfunctions arise from the lesion of certain centers and pathways that are responsible for voluntary movements of the person. They belong to the so-called pyramid system. Because of mechanical damage or complications of diseases after the passage of impulses through this system may be interrupted or completely blocked. As a result, the impulse responsible for the arbitrary contraction of the muscles, can not reach the destination. This is the cause of paresis or paralysis.
Experts share spastic (also known as Central) and sluggish (also called peripheral) palsy. TOOOhe Difference between them lies in the degree of reflex activity. When loose form of this activity markedly decreases or even stops. In spastic occur completely opposite processes. During this type of paresis, reflex activity of the victim substantially exceeds the normal value.
Diagnosis and treatment
Diagnosed with spastic or peripheral paresis based on clinical data. Also often used is the set of studies with the use of specialized tools. Such tests include:
- X-ray, magnetic resonance and computed tomography.
- two-Dimensional echoencephalography used for infants under 1 year.
- radiography of the skull, subarachnoid the meninges.
- Radioisotope methods of diagnosis.
- Ultrasonic dopplersonography.
Of the most common methods of diagnosis is devoted to electron diffraction. This technique is extremely important, as it helps to distinguish and diagnose flaccid and spastic paresis. It reveals specific changes in the anterior horn of the spinal cord lesions and neuropathies, absent with UMNS. In addition, electron diffraction causes a reflex reaction of the muscles, which is called the H-reflexes. Under normal condition the patient respond only the calf muscles. While in spastic paresis react all paretic muscles.
depending on the causes of paralysis or paresis there are different methods of treatment of this pathology. Lesions caused by trauma and rupture of the nerves, patients underwent microsurgical repositioning. In other cases prefer to use physical therapy. It includes procedures such as:
- UHF-therapy aimed at the affected region paresis;
- microwave therapy
- using a pulsed current;
- electrophoresis with novocaine and calcium;
- the UV irradiation.
The sluggish forms of the lesion physiotherapy performed immediately after the start of the development of pathology. An exception is electrophoresis, which is used in later stages of treatment and combined with the use of anticholinesterase drugs.
In spastic paresis of the urgent help is not required. If the lesion is caused by trauma, physical therapy is administered in the treatment course after 2-3 weeks. When the stroke is 3-5 weeks.
And it must be remembered that when we treat the paresis, the key to successful therapy lies in the strict observance of all appointments of the attending physician.
It is Worth noting that some manifestations of spastic paresis may occur in newborns. Such manifestations are emerging physiological characteristics of the organism. With the development of the cerebellum,pyramidal system and brainstem structures, they gradually disappear.
In a separate group of isolated paresis of children's cerebral paralysis. The pathology most often occurs as a result of intrauterine or perinatal brain damage. Such changes cause a violation of the rule of ontogeny of children's motor system. They contribute to the formation of atypical reactions and automatisms, which hinder movement of the baby. Very often these pathologies mimic and picture of spastic paresis.
Full or partial paralysis is not the only reason for the weakening or absence of voluntary movements.
Often, this symptom can be observed when you are developing muscular dystrophy. This syndrome is characterized by some signs of peripheral lesions. For this reason, in any case not to self-medicate. At the first symptoms of disease it is necessary to consult a specialist. The only way to find the right course of treatment, not confusing pathology with similar symptoms.