Types and characteristics of operations for the removal of a herniated disc
Hernial protrusion of the intervertebral spaces appear in many people aged 40 years and older. Most are not even aware about their presence, but some patients actively complain of constant and severe back pain after work and when the position of the body. They believe that the reason for this – increased physical activity and accumulated fatigue in the back.
Local doctors clinics try to treat their sciatica. But you have to understand that these symptoms primarily point to the defect in the intervertebral disc. Advances in medical science in recent years, allow to say confidently that the surgical removal of intervertebral hernias helps in the healing of patients with pathology of the spine.
Who patients require surgery?
The Indications for surgical treatment are conventionally divided into two groups. If without surgery for hernia it is impossible to do anything, it will be absolute indications:
- strong pain expressed, which cannot be removed by other methods;
- major changes in the pelvic organs, causing inability to hold urine and feces.
When the operation is not yet absolutely necessary, the patient may refuse surgery. Although there are some symptoms that indicate the presence of protrusion in the intervertebral space. It will be comparative reading:
- pain in any region of the spine that the patient is still able to stand;
- partial violation of motor activity of the lower limbs, for example, paralysis of the foot;
- weakness in the leg muscles, leading to atrophy on a background of innervation;
- is no improvement after 3 months of treatment using conservative methods.
Modern types of operations to remove herniated discs
To today's most commonly used surgical methods include:
"Gold standard" of treatment for spinal disc defects is surgical intervention during which a removal of disc herniation. This is a less traumatic surgery through a small incision. Due to this, achieved a rapid recovery after hernia repair, and the patient almost no pain.
surgery to remove a spinal hernia is performed under visual control of a microscope by using a set of microsurgical instruments. Without damage to adjacent bones of the spine and remove compression of the spinal nerves.
After the surgery the patient can sit. Rehabilitation takes no more than 2-3 weeks. Next, the patient is advised to wear a special corset for up to 3 months.
- Endoscopic surgery
Remove the disc herniation through endoscopy has become possible in recent years as fiber optic technology started to be used in medicine. Special neurosurgical equipment is able to visualize the formation between the vertebrae with minimal damage to the skin at the surgical site.
The surgery to remove herniated discs practically does not differ from conventional microdiscectomy. The size of the skin incision is not more than 2.5 cm the Whole course of the intervention is displayed on the monitor.
A day after the surgery, the patient can walk, but discharge from hospital is carried out on day 4. The risk of postoperative complications and duration of rehabilitation period is reduced by several times.
- Laser radiation
The Removal of the vertebral hernia laser refers to modern methods of treatment of spinal problems. The method has certain limitations, but it can replace radical surgery.
using aspiration through a special needle inserted the tip of the fiber. It helps the heating of the hernial education in several places up to 70 degrees. It is not allowed the destruction of the structure of the disk. Due to the evaporation of the liquid reduces the size and stimulates reparative processes in the intervertebral disc space.
The Recovery period after laser irradiation takes considerably more time. Pain the patient completely go away in a few months.
The Removal of intervertebral hernia, as a normal procedure, it can be supplemented with laser therapy. This helps strengthen bone tissue of the spine, reduces the probability of breakage of the disc and prevents the possibility of recurrence of the diverticulum.
- Destruction of intervertebral nerves
The Main purpose of the procedure is to relieve pain in a patient caused by damage to the articular surfaces of the spine. First, you need to block the receptors in the intervertebral disc space by maintaining a blockade of periarticular anesthetic. After this, the surgeon can see that the reason strongpain is not a hernia, the surgery to remove it will not give the desired result and it is necessary to apply a method of destruction of the nerves.
A good Technique when surgical treatment is temporarily not required, and patients concerned about pain expressed in Shebalino-extensor movements in the spine.
- Plastic surgery
In case of damage of the bone tissue and the need to strengthen the spine, a method of vertebroplasty. Surgery to remove an intervertebral hernia does not solve all problems, if the patient has a fracture of the vertebrae on the background of osteoporosis, after an injury or in tumor.
The bone surfaces with special plastic or bone cement to prevent further deformation of the intervertebral discs and stabilizing the spine.
the advantages of surgical techniques
The Removal of intervertebral hernia surgical procedure allows a high degree of probability to ensure patient recovery. What are the positive effects of modern methods of surgical treatment:
- fast pain relief in a patient using standard and endoscopic techniques;
- the minimum time spent in the hospital;
- high probability of complete cure;
- recovery after surgery takes a little time, which provides a relatively rapid recovery.
each method has its drawbacks
The Removal of the vertebral hernia, like any surgery, can lead to complications. Some of them are connected with the very fact of the surgical effects on the human body. The most serious complications after surgery for hernia orifices of the protrusions on the disk:
- infectious and inflammatory processes (epidurit, spondylitis, osteomyelitis), prevention of which is the timely administration of antibacterial drugs;
- scarring and adhesions in the spinal canal, which greatly impairs and lengthens the recovery and rehabilitation of patients;
- deterioration of the vertebrae, leading to a further sinking them in relation to each other;
- movement disorders in the lower extremities, which may occur due to the tissue damage of the spinal cord during surgery;
- to change the function of the pelvic organs, as a consequence of injury of the spinal nerves.
What is the likelihood of recurrence after surgical removal of hernia?
This is one of the most important and frequent questions that arises from the patient after the operation.
fortunately, according to statistics, the rate of relapse after surgery does not exceed 5 %. Re-herniation is possible in the area of the same disk, but on the other hand. If the hernial defect is formed again, it is an indication for hospitalization and repeated surgical treatment.
Surgical removal of intervertebral hernia, of the spine, in strict account of all indications and contraindications is an effective method of treatment. It should be understood that the ideal effect of the operation will not be.
After surgery and rehabilitation required rehabilitation activities. Wearing a corset is necessary to consolidate the positive effect of the surgery. In the future the patient must remember that strong physical exertion and sudden movements of the body can lead to the re-formation of the hernial education in any intervertebral space. The occurrence of relapse does not depend on the amount of time that has elapsed after the operation.