Causes, symptoms and treatment of fibromyalgia
- Diagnosis and treatment of fibromyalgia A. B. Danilov sbei HPE RNSMU. N. And.Pirogov of rmphsd, Moscow, magazine doctor issue # 5 2012
- Modern principles of treatment of the fibromyalgia G. R. Tabeeva, MMA. I. M. Sechenov, Moscow, journal of breast cancer Independent publication for practitioners, issue # 15 2011
According to statistics, suffering from fibromyalgia from 2 to 4% of the population. Fibromyalgia, symptoms and treatment are the subject of research over the past 100 years. Because the disease manifests itself unusual: the condition in fibromyalgia is not caused by damage or inflammation of peripheral tissues, because of this it is difficult to diagnose. Some doctors, finding foci of the disease, according patients malingerers or patients with hysteria. Often doctors mistakenly diagnosed with fibromyalgia other diseases, considering the similar condition due to previous stress or trauma.
What is fibromyalgia?
Fibromylagia (or fibromyositis) is a chronic complex disorder of the body, in which the patient is experiencing musculo-skeletal pain with a characteristic painful areas, so-called pain points. The disease is accompanied by psychological distress and depression. The patient is in a state of depression. He feels exhaustion, fatigue, but can not fully sleep and rest. In the mornings and sometimes in the evenings you receive stiffness. This is a characteristic feature of fibromyalgia is manifested in 70% of patients. Stiffness may disappear after one hour, and can torment the person.
recent studies prove the Association of fibromyalgia with disorders of the Central nervous system. One of the main mechanisms of formation of chronic pain is the phenomenon of Central sensitization. Central sensitization is the increased excitability of neurons in the Central nervous system. The gist of it is that the person feels pain in the absence of depressant, for no apparent reason.
Among patients with fibromyalgia, many have hypertension, diseases of the joints. Some patients found pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, they have violated the process of digestion, there is the irritable bowel syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by bloating, intestinal pain and malfunction, and discomfort.
dysfunction of the Central nervous system, causing fibromyalgia, most often appear in people with genetic predisposition. If this disease were observed in close relatives of a person, the likelihood of developing fibromyalgia it will be high.
But there are additional factors that provoke this condition:
- Stressful situation. Especially have a negative impact on human health repetitive stress. But to give impetus to the development of disease and may one severe psychological trauma.
- Peripheral pain syndromes. They arise when damage to the peripheral nervous system. Such damage include neuropathy, neuralgia, plexopathy. For example, to start the development of fibromyalgia in adults can rheumatoid arthritis.
- Infection. Some viral (parvovirus, Epstein-Barr, hepatitis C, herpes) and bacterial (tick-borne borreliosis, Q fever) diseases can cause fibromiozity.
- Strong physical trauma. For example, the trauma systems and organs as a result of a traffic accident.
- Mental stress. Prolonged psychological stress has a destructive effect on the body. Negatively affected by phobias, hypochondria.
- Hormone imbalance. Sudden hormonal changes can cause such diseases as fibromiozity. Therefore, the vast number of cases (80-90%) are women who are in reproductive age.
- Immune disorders.
- the Cause of fibromyalgia can also be drugs and vaccines.
The Main symptom of the disease is a chronic diffuse (General) pain of skeletal muscle. It is observed for at least 3 months and have aching, exhausting character. Appears almost constantly throughout the body, above and below the waist. The patient describes his sensations as pain, "which is felt everywhere," she looks like a burning, electric shock, or seizures. The person feels constantly hoarse. Sometimes, you may experience pain andswelling in the joints. In addition to pain, patients feel a tingling in the body, numbness, "crawling on the skin and needles" and burning. Especially often these symptoms occur in the limbs.
When examining the patient the doctor finds an increased sensitivity and soreness of certain body areas – the "pain points". This symmetric pair of zones located mainly in the neck, the neck and shoulder area to the elbows, buttocks and knees. At these points there is no tissue damage or local inflammation, pain in these areas due to high sensitivity. The vast majority of patients detected at least 11 pressure points.
Increased pain after emotional stress, physical stress, hypothermia, and prolonged immobility. Some relief to the patient brings moderate physical activity, massage, short rest or a warm bath.
Concomitant fibromyalgia is a condition of tiredness and fatigue. As a rule, it is higher in the morning after waking up. But it often occurs in the evening. In the morning the patient feels stiffness in the body. He doesn't feel sleepy even if you slept 10 hours. Sleep in patients with fibromyalgia restless and choppy, not giving relief. They find it difficult to sleep.
Fibromyalgia in adults are often accompanied by various mental disorders. Up to 60% of patients have psychiatric disease, and mental disorders are diagnosed even more. The most common conditions in patients with fibromyalgia are depression and anxiety disorders. They can't concentrate, you feel "the fog" and lethargy.
Treatment traditional means
which doctor to consult for treatment of the disease? On fibromyalgia and pain are specialized rheumatologists and neurologists. Rheumatologists treat diseases of the joints, muscles and bones. Neurologists deal with diseases of the nervous system, back, muscles, headaches. When developing fibromyalgia, the symptoms may manifest as pain in the back muscles, in the joints or in the form of occipital pain. Depending on the manifested symptoms, you can refer to a rheumatologist or neurologist. If in doubt, better to consult a physician. He will examine the patient and refer them to a rheumatologist or neurologist.
Treatment of fibromyalgia involves a complex of measures.
In the first place the doctor will prescribe the correction of lifestyle, and will give recommendations for optimal sleep and of consciousness, motor activity, diet. Studies have proven a direct relationship the patient has recovered his sleep. Sleep hygiene is to create a comfortable environment – comfortable bed, well ventilated room with isolation from light and noise, no distractions (phone, alarm clock). An hour before bedtime is recommended warm bath to the patient and reading. For normalization of sleep, a doctor may prescribe sleep drugs.
Nutrition of patients should be balanced, rich in vitamins and minerals. Important two minerals – calcium and magnesium. Foods rich in these minerals should be present in the daily menu in abundance. Another important component is malic acid.
drug treatment of fibromyositis shown antidepressants. These drugs reduce pain, reduce depression, improve sleep quality and relieve fatigue. Your doctor may also prescribe anticonvulsants. Anticonvulsants are drugs anticonvulsant action. They are also able to significantly improve the patient's condition fibromyalgia.
Patients with fibromyalgia are prescribed NSAIDs for relief of pain and relieve inflammation.
If treatment fails, use of hormonal drugs and activators of phosphorylase.
Treatment of folk remedies fibromyalgia does not lose its relevance. Patients with fibromyalgia traditional medicine recommends regularly consume natural honey. It is better to take honey in the morning on an empty stomach one tablespoon daily. Honey will saturate the body with nutrients, give energy, raise immunity and mood.
You Should abandon the traditional black tea in favor of herbal teas. In fibromyalgia useful plants such as dandelion, clover, burdock root, Echinacea, Thistle, Valerian, motherwort, Astragal, rose. They can be brewed simultaneously or separately. Good to combine 2-3. Regular consumption of decoctions of these herbs will ease the condition of the patient, will cheer him up, improve vitality, increase resistance to diseases and relieve the body of toxins.
It is Useful to take a tincture of Magnolia-vine, which is composed of active substances that enhance the processes of perception and excitation of the Central nervous system. The remedy is taken once daily, 5-7 drops per 100 g of water.Increasing the dosage can be done only under medical supervision.
Tincture of ginseng will increase appetite, improve digestion, normalize blood sugar and increase immunity. Accepted tincture daily once a day 10 drops on 100 g of water.
To Reduce pain will help a compress of a mixture of red pepper with vegetable oil. The oil prevents irritation of the skin pepper. Poultice neutralizes the conduction of nerve impulses responsible for pain.
Tincture of lilac and birch buds can significantly reduce the pain, if you regularly RUB them in "pain points".
Regular physical activity and a relaxing massage is able to quickly return the patient to normal life.
Contrast shower will help get rid of the stiffness, especially in the morning. Temperature changes should not be excessive. Quite some fluctuations of the temperature from 35°C to 40°C.
Many people prefer alternative therapies. But if fibromyalgia is diagnosed, treatment should take place under medical supervision.
Prevention of disease
A Helpful Hiking in the fresh air and swimming in warm water. Only to prevent hypothermia. Clothing must be reliably protected against the cold and damp in rainy weather.
In Order not to provoke the disease, it is recommended to refuse from flour and sweet, from food with sugar substitutes, food additives, preservatives and dyes. Contraindicated strong tea, coffee. Should limit consumption of chocolate, dairy products and nightshades (potatoes, tomatoes).
It is Necessary to abandon bad habits, Smoking and alcohol abuse.
You Should avoid stressful situations. If professional activity is associated with chronic stress, there is a sense to think about changing occupations.
At the same time it is not necessary to completely abandon the work. Studies confirm that people who are actively involved in different activities, are less prone to fibromyalgia. People leading a passive and sedentary lifestyle, on the contrary, it is much more likely to suffer from this disease.