How is the densitometry of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck?
Densitometry of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck is the most common procedure in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. These areas of the skeleton most susceptible to damage and weakening of the bone, so x-ray densitometry of the pelvis is twice as likely than the diagnosis of other body parts. This procedure has two names: bone densitometry and densitometry. This method of diagnosis that aims to quantitatively establish the density of bone mass in certain areas of the bones that make up the skeleton of the body. This procedure makes it possible to study the degree of fracture and bone loss.
Densitometry for osteoporosis
Densitometry is a radiological procedure which is shown to hold under existing diseases of bone tissue, and also people in old age to prevent them. Most Often performed densitometry of the spine and the femoral neck, because these parts of the skeleton more prone to injury. With age the bone density is greatly reduced, this is due to the loss of calcium. All this leads to the violation of the microstructure of bones and, more specifically, to increase their porosity, brittleness and breakage. The strength of the bones decreases, which leads to an increase in the number of fractures. It is most common fracture of the pelvis and hip.
The Reduction of bone density is called osteoporosis. According to the world health organization, it ranks third among causes of mortality in the elderly. It comes second only to the cardiovascular system and cancer. Prone to this disease, both women and men, but the risk of developing it at a strong half of mankind is much lower, at only 10-12%. While women with osteoporosis occurs in 35-40% of cases.
Osteoporosis is discovered by accident: fracture of the spine, or radial bone of the femoral neck, in the course of treatment are appointed by research and analysis, and diagnosis.
From early signs of osteoporosis can be distinguished:
- discomfort and fatigue in your back;
- pain at sharp movements;
- reduction in the human growth;
- chest deformity.
Types of research and indications for
Today, the densitometry of the spine and the femoral neck is the best way to prevent the development of osteoporosis. The main enemies of a healthy of the skeletal age and hormonal changes the body. That is why women often suffer from bone fragility, because in adulthood they experience menopause in which bone tissue is severely destroyed due to hormonal imbalances. Thanks to x-ray and ultrasonic diagnosis of the disease can be noticed in the early stages, not when she would not yield to treatment.
for Regular tests and pass a baseline medical examination is recommended not only in adulthood. The risk factors for osteoporosis include those who lead a sedentary lifestyle, having a genetic predisposition to the disease, Smoking and abusing alcoholic drinks.
Recommended to be tested, having an x-ray or ultrasound diagnosis of women with onset of menopause, especially early. Increased risk of osteoporosis in people with low body weight (women less than 55 kg and men less than 70 kg). The lack of calcium and vitamin D, corticosteroids, estrogen-deficient osteoporosis also occurs frequently. Mandatory densitometry examination is for people suffering from diseases of the endocrine system (diabetes, hypothyroidism) and diseases of rheumatic character. Densitometry is a comprehensive examination that includes x-rays, ultrasound diagnostics and delivery of clinical tests. By type is divided into:
- quantitative ultrasound densitometry (QUDM);
- deenergizes absorptiometry x-ray (DXA);
- quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (CMRT);
- quantitative computed tomography (QCT).
For the ultrasound and x-ray diagnostics of any special preparation steps are required. These tests are completely painless and can be held at any time of the day, regardless of meals or medicines. But the observance of certain rules is still recommended.
Preparation for the examination includes stopping any medicines and dietary supplements containing calcium the day before the procedure. The doctor is required to warnon the eve of past similar surveys, especially if they used barium or other contrast medium. Forbidden to hold any kind of densitometry in pregnancy or the slightest suspicion of it. During the survey you want to keep perfectly still, it will provide clarity and will help to conduct the survey in more detail.
When densitometry of the lumbar spine, the patient should lie on his stomach, and in the study of the femoral neck examined on the opposite joint side. Densitometry is performed on a special table. Over investigated area of the body moves the sensor that transmits information to the monitor screen. Time the examination takes 10 to 30 minutes. To undress during the examination is not required, but clothing should be spacious and should not contain metal objects. The obtained data are recorded on a special form by the doctor-the radiologist, and the interpretation of the results of the survey conducted by the attending doctor.
As a preventive measure to undergo this procedure diagnosis health is recommended once in two years. This will help to identify the disease at an early stages of development and to track changes in bone density in the dynamics.
survey Data and decoding
Densitometry indicates two parameters: the T-score and Z-score. The first is the comparison of bone density patient subject with an indicator benchmark of a healthy skeleton. Considered normal a score ranging from one and above. When the index range is from -1 to -2.5 one can talk about low mineral density or osteopenia. The figure below shows -2,5 present in the body osteoporosis.
The Z-score is an index comparing the bone density of a patient with secondary parameter corresponding to the age of the person. If the difference is very great, need more tests: x-rays, biochemical tests, biopsy of the bone tissue. Specific contraindications for carrying out densitometry no.
This procedure is not performed in pregnancy because of possible threat to the life of the fetus.
To Conduct a survey after delivery. Also it is recommended to postpone the examination for a few days, if you have previously carried out similar treatments. You cannot perform densitometry in patients with irreversible changes in the sacral-lumbar part, which will not allow him to take the right position on the table.