How to treat headache accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea, fever
Headaches (GB) are companions of many viral and bacterial diseases. This is one of the many symptoms of communicable diseases, after healing which is itself pain. Therefore, by its nature, this kind of pain are referred to secondary syndromes. Primary cephalalgia occurs on the basis of stress, overwork, emotional tension in different periods of life (with different frequency) attacks of pain of this nature happen in completely healthy people.
An Infectious disease, but headaches have a number of signs which can by visual inspection and survey of the patient with a sufficiently high accuracy to determine the cause of the malaise. The most common are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and fever. The severity and specificity of disease depend on the type of pathogen, age, immune status, the presence (absence) of chronic diseases.
Microbes as the cause of headaches
Acute intestinal infections (aII) – a group of diseases of infectious nature, accompanied the expressed intoxication and impaired motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, severe headache, chills, fever – all these symptoms are manifested in diseases caused by different pathogens. As a rule, headache is an early harbinger of infection and appears a few hours before the main clinical signs. Loss of appetite, weakness and apathy come a little later, GB is enhanced. Analgesics brings the endowment is under the influence of the drug headache not so much, but the overall condition is not improving.
Abdominal Pain is the main symptom of enterovirus and bacterial infections. Accurate diagnosis is based on clinical tests, although most experienced physicians to quickly differentiate viral infection from bacterial diseases on the stage of history. Whereas the nature of onset (sudden, gradual), intensity of abdominal pain, frequency and characteristics of stool (appearance of faeces), temperature and the associated symptoms.
More than 70% OKI accounted for infections in which the pathogen is not established. If the bacterial nature of the disease is excluded, applies the standard regimen for the treatment of all sporadic OKI that do not pose an epidemic risk. Nevertheless, the physician needs to decide quickly on measures of first aid, because with progressive diarrhea (especially in children), quickly comes dehydration, this condition is life-threatening. All the efforts of specialists examining the patient, should be directed to:
- prevention of violation of vital functions of the body;
- definition of the Genesis of the disease (therapeutic, infectious and surgical);
- decision regarding the appropriateness of hospitalization;
- investment of the patient's condition.
acute Bacterial enteric infections
Bacterial infections are treated in hospitals on a strictly defined scheme to obtain "clean" results. Applies antibiotic therapy, rehydration (correction of the dehydration), prevents the development of dysbiosis. The most dangerous and widespread infections that lead to local epidemics, mainly in summer, are dysentery, cholera, salmonellosis.
Headache, nausea, and diarrhea, as well as temperature and symptoms of intoxication developing in these diseases, as a rule, take place simultaneously with the beginning of specific therapy (usually anti-bacterial, with the exception of salmonellosis).
|Pathogen OKI||infection||Incubation period||Clinical picture|
|Bacteria (Salmonella, Shigella, E. Coli, Yersinia, Clostridium, etc.)||Food, water, household (fecal-oral)||24-48 hours||Gradually deteriorating health, chills and fever, headache in the forehead and crown of the head, occasional vomiting, diarrhea (diarrhea). The nature of the stool depends largely on the type of the agent: with an abundant mixed greens with salmonellosis, frequent, painful, but not abundant, often mixed with streaks of blood in case of shigellosis.|
|Viruses (rotaviruses, adenoviruses, astroviruses, caliciviruses, etc.||Airborne dust||12-36 hours||a Sharp increase in temperature, throbbing headache, nausea, fever, cold sweat, cramps in stomach, diarrhea, convulsions (in children).|
|Protozoan organisms (dysentery amoeba, Giardia, isosorbide, etc.)||Contact-household||48-160 hours||Diarrhea,low-grade fever, malaise, weakness, loss of appetite, severe abdominal pain.|
|Unidentified pathogen||Airborne, airborne dust||6-120 hours||Signs of poisoning and intoxication – headache, temperature, pale skin, tachycardia, diarrhoea, vomiting.|
Virus and lesions of the gastrointestinal tract
SARS, flowing with the disorder of gastrointestinal motility, are becoming more common. To differentiate viral infections from bacterial infections, it is necessary to carefully analyze all the symptoms, from the nature of the headache, and frequency of stool in diarrhea and to detail the General condition.
For viral infections characterized by the rapid development of multiple symptoms at the same time (after 12-24 hours of the incubation period). Weakness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, aversion to food and water, dizziness, dry mouth, severe headache in the forehead and the crown.
On palpation there may be enlargement of the liver. Fever – from the first day of the disease, the temperature is 38-39 degrees. The viral nature indicate the associated signs that appear two days after the onset of the disease. It is nasal congestion, watery and sometimes cough. Characteristically, temporary relief of the condition related to taking antiviral medicines, after some time passes, and the patient complains of malaise.
Especially hard to proceed viral infection in children of preschool and infant age. In rotavirus gastroenteritis, the fluid is rapidly excreted from the body, which leads to the critical state. To compensate the loss of water is extremely difficult, because it violates the mechanisms of absorption and digestion, which leads to transient immune deficiency. Rehydration is carried out orally or intravenously, depending on the patient's physical condition.
Comparative table of some of the clinical manifestations of SARS
|Nausea, vomiting||abdominal Pain||Diarrhea||Chills||Chair||Hyperemia of the throat||Cough||nasal Congestion||Sore throat|
|Rotavirus||+||+Stomach ache diffusely in the umbilical region||Attack||+headache (in the form of a Hoop or in the frontal-temporal region)||Watery, rich||+||+||+||+|
|Adenovirus||In some cases, usually vomiting is not typical||Moderate||+||+||Pappy||+||+||+||+|
After restoring the electrolyte balance of the patient is assigned diet (restricting carbohydrates, dairy products, vegetables and fruits), prescribed enzymes, sorbents, probiotics. With SARS with lesions of the digestive tract shows bed rest, antiviral agents, interferon inducers ("Amiksin"). The dosage of antiviral drugs and formulations means that compensate the fluid loss, calculated on the basis of age, the patient's condition, clinical presentation.
shown When emergency call your doctor
At first signs ORVI or OKI should immediately call a doctor. Even if the only symptoms is headache and diarrhea, medical examination required. The doctor will determine how serious the symptoms are, and decide on the venue of treatment (inpatient or outpatient). In children, dehydration occurs rapidly, and to compensate for water loss at home is sometimes impossible (especially if it hurts a small child). In addition, it is very important after a crisis to follow all recommendations of your doctor regarding diet and restore enzyme composition of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic gastroenteritis are often complications of viral infections, but their development can be avoided if consistently adhered to the scheme of rehabilitation appointed by the specialist.
- Mc Qbaid K. R. Diarrhea. Current medical diagnosis and treatment. 38th ed. Appleton & Lange, 1999, p. 546.
- Lobzin Y. V., Korvyakova E. R., Litasov N. V., Zakharenko S. M. Modern pharmacotherapy of acute intestinal infections. The center of the EPR BZ MO.
- Springis D. And others Emergency treatment. GEOTAR Medicine, 2000. C. 30.
- Yushchuk N. D., Brodov L. E. Principles of diagnosis and treatment of acute intestinal infections // Attending Physician. 1999. No. 7. P. 40.